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BISC 1005, Week 4

by: Jaimee Kidd

BISC 1005, Week 4 BISC 1005

Jaimee Kidd
GPA 3.6

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The Organisms That Are Our Food
The Biology of Nutrition and Health
Scully, T
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in The Biology of Nutrition and Health

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
The  Organisms  That  Are  Our  Food   Evolution’s  Influence   •   Many  mechanisms   ◦   Mutation   ◦   Gene  Flow   ◦   Genetic  Drift   ◦   Natural  Selection   •   All  change  over  time  in  populations     Prokaryotes   •   Single  celled   •   Simplistic  structure  and  function   ◦   Archaea  live  in  mainly  extreme  environments   ◦   Bacteria  live  everywhere   •   How  do  we  interact  with  prokaryotes  in  our  food?   ◦   Bacterial  Pathogens   ▪   Extracellular   ▪   Multiply  outside   ▪   Produce  a  substance  that  causes  harm   ▪   Cause  of  imbalance  in  our  normal  flora   ▪   Ex.  Clostridium,  Staphylococcus,  Streptococcus   ▪   Intracellular   ▪   Enter  into  cells  and  can  survive   ▪   Produce  a  substance  that  causes  harm   ▪   Kills  the  cell  by  causing  it  to  burst   ▪   Ex.  Chlamoydophila,  Ehrlichia,  Rickettsia   ▪   Toxins   ▪   Endotoxins-­‐  structural  component,  most  famous  one  is  a  fat-­‐sugar   combination  (lipopolysaccharides)   ▪   Exotoxins-­‐  protein  component-­‐  produce  mainly  as  defense   ◦   How  to  prevent  illness...   ▪   Cooking   ▪   Salting   ▪   Pickling   ▪   Drying   ▪   Being  clean!   ◦   Good  Bacteria   ▪   Used  in  food  production   ▪   Yogurt-­‐live  cultures   ▪   Cheese   ▪   Pickling   Eukaryotes   •   Eukaryotes  are  bigger,  better,  more  complicated   ◦   Becoming  complicated  through  symbiosis   ◦   Mitochondria  and  chloroplasts  originated  as  bacterial  cells  that  came  to  live   inside  larger  cells   •   How  do  we  interact  with  protists  in  our  food?   ◦   Protists  are  microscopic  eukaryotes     ▪   Not  many  in  our  food   ▪   Algae   ▪   But  they  are  very  important  food  to  other  organisms   ▪   Phytoplankton   ▪   Zooplankton   ▪   Important  for  us  to  think  about  their  role  in  the  food  web,  since  they  are   not  directly  apart  of  our  own  diet  but  affect  a  lot  of  what  we  eat,  such  as   any  food  from  the  sea  (e.g.  oysters,  fish,  etc)   ▪   Base  of  all  the  food  webs  in  the  aquatic  systems   •   How  do  we  interact  with  plants  in  our  food?   ◦   Mainly  flowering  plants  make  up  our  food:  angiosperms   ◦   Green=  photoautotrophs   ▪   Root   ▪   Main  functions  are  for  absorption  of  very  specific  nutrients  that   plants  need:  water  and  minterals   ▪   Circulatory  system   ▪   moves  minerals  and  water  to  photosynthetic  cells  —>   Ingredients  of  photosynthesis:  sunlight,  water  and   minerals,  carbon  dioxide  and  pigments   ▪   Shoot  (Stem,  Leaves,  and  Flowers)   ▪   Perform  photosynthesis  (sunlight  &  pigments)   ▪   Stomata  (pores)  or  the  leaves  allows  carbon  dioxide  in     ◦   Plant  Parts  We  Eat   ▪   Below  Ground  Vegetation     ▪   Tubers   ▪   Roots   ▪   Bulbs   ▪   Above  Ground  Vegetation   ▪   Leafy  Greens   ▪   Fruit-­‐  Ripened  Ovaries   ▪   Flowers   ▪   Most  are  hermaprhoditic  (meaning  they  have  both   male  and  female  parts)   ▪   Male  parts-­‐   ▪   Stamen-­‐  filament  and  anther  (where   pollen  is  created—>  pollen  is  sperm)   ▪   Female  Parts-­‐   ▪   Capel/pistol-­‐  stigma  (secretes  mucus   to  attract  pollen),  style  (where  the   sperm  &  pollen  travel  to  get  to  the   ovary),  ovary  (where  the  eggs  are   located)   ▪   Different  Fruits   ▪   Simple  fruit  (accessory  fruit  and  dry  fruit)  (pear)   ▪   Aggregate  fruit  (berry)   ▪   Multiple  fruit  (pineapple)     ▪   Produce  flowers  to  attract  pollinators   ▪   Produce  fruit  to  attract  seed  dispersal  animals    


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