BISC 1005, Week 4
BISC 1005, Week 4 BISC 1005
Popular in The Biology of Nutrition and Health
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
The Organisms That Are Our Food Evolution’s Influence • Many mechanisms ◦ Mutation ◦ Gene Flow ◦ Genetic Drift ◦ Natural Selection • All change over time in populations Prokaryotes • Single celled • Simplistic structure and function ◦ Archaea live in mainly extreme environments ◦ Bacteria live everywhere • How do we interact with prokaryotes in our food? ◦ Bacterial Pathogens ▪ Extracellular ▪ Multiply outside ▪ Produce a substance that causes harm ▪ Cause of imbalance in our normal flora ▪ Ex. Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus ▪ Intracellular ▪ Enter into cells and can survive ▪ Produce a substance that causes harm ▪ Kills the cell by causing it to burst ▪ Ex. Chlamoydophila, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia ▪ Toxins ▪ Endotoxins-‐ structural component, most famous one is a fat-‐sugar combination (lipopolysaccharides) ▪ Exotoxins-‐ protein component-‐ produce mainly as defense ◦ How to prevent illness... ▪ Cooking ▪ Salting ▪ Pickling ▪ Drying ▪ Being clean! ◦ Good Bacteria ▪ Used in food production ▪ Yogurt-‐live cultures ▪ Cheese ▪ Pickling Eukaryotes • Eukaryotes are bigger, better, more complicated ◦ Becoming complicated through symbiosis ◦ Mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as bacterial cells that came to live inside larger cells • How do we interact with protists in our food? ◦ Protists are microscopic eukaryotes ▪ Not many in our food ▪ Algae ▪ But they are very important food to other organisms ▪ Phytoplankton ▪ Zooplankton ▪ Important for us to think about their role in the food web, since they are not directly apart of our own diet but affect a lot of what we eat, such as any food from the sea (e.g. oysters, fish, etc) ▪ Base of all the food webs in the aquatic systems • How do we interact with plants in our food? ◦ Mainly flowering plants make up our food: angiosperms ◦ Green= photoautotrophs ▪ Root ▪ Main functions are for absorption of very specific nutrients that plants need: water and minterals ▪ Circulatory system ▪ moves minerals and water to photosynthetic cells —> Ingredients of photosynthesis: sunlight, water and minerals, carbon dioxide and pigments ▪ Shoot (Stem, Leaves, and Flowers) ▪ Perform photosynthesis (sunlight & pigments) ▪ Stomata (pores) or the leaves allows carbon dioxide in ◦ Plant Parts We Eat ▪ Below Ground Vegetation ▪ Tubers ▪ Roots ▪ Bulbs ▪ Above Ground Vegetation ▪ Leafy Greens ▪ Fruit-‐ Ripened Ovaries ▪ Flowers ▪ Most are hermaprhoditic (meaning they have both male and female parts) ▪ Male parts-‐ ▪ Stamen-‐ filament and anther (where pollen is created—> pollen is sperm) ▪ Female Parts-‐ ▪ Capel/pistol-‐ stigma (secretes mucus to attract pollen), style (where the sperm & pollen travel to get to the ovary), ovary (where the eggs are located) ▪ Different Fruits ▪ Simple fruit (accessory fruit and dry fruit) (pear) ▪ Aggregate fruit (berry) ▪ Multiple fruit (pineapple) ▪ Produce flowers to attract pollinators ▪ Produce fruit to attract seed dispersal animals
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