PSCI_4830_Robert_Kagan_Dangerous_Nation_Notes.pdf PSCI 4830
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylen Howard on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 4830 at University of North Texas taught by Andrew Enterline in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see American Foreign Affairs in POLITCAL SCIENCE at University of North Texas.
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Robert Kagan’s Dangerous Nation Notes, Questions, and Answers PAGE # & SIDE NOTES NOTES & QUESTIONS ‘They also insisted that the way the taxes Q: What precipitated the revolution? were levied, by a faraway parliament in Ø End of the French and Indian war (Seven Yrs. War) which they were not and could not be Ø Expansion of America represented, violated their rights as Ø Independence from Britain Englishmen, and that this was part of a broader effort to impair their liberties and make them slaves.’ ( pg. 31) (All the bullet points are the correct answer) Q: Why was the American revolution considered the ‘peoples war? Ø Colonist fought to supple for themselves, such as taxation and more Ø Colonist believed they had a superior power to the British Ø Colonist were more progressive then the British, with ideas. Ø There was a difference in the perception in regards to the American role. Ø Ideas were given too much power, which brought about fear to the British. Q: The seven Yrs. War was considered? Ø A ‘dispute between two crowns,’ Britain and France Ø A ‘British war’ Ø An indifference to the colonist who strived for peace PG 40 Q: What was the colonist interpretation of the ‘federated empire’ or imperialism? Ø Abandonment of the traditional theories of Imperialism- an empire, high power, government that did not offer justification of the monarchy. ‘legitimate sovereign’ PG 41 Q: What was the justification of the colonist breaking free from Britain? Ø Enlightenment Ø Natural rights Ø Social Compact PG 31-32 Q: What was the opinion of Ben Franklin in regards to the colonist role in the war with the French? Ø The concept of ‘self-abnegation’ Ø Colonist were at perfect peace with both the Self-abnegation-self denial French and natives Ø The colonist had no particular concern or interest in the war. Q: What did Ben Franklin, and other colonist, argument over the war with France turn into? Ø A mold to shape the American perspective of themselves as a passive innocents who were continually swept into war of others. SECTION 2 PG 13 Q: Define Civilization? Ø An ‘idea of destiny and the belief in the rights of conquest of backwards people in the name of civilization. Q: Who was considered un-civilized? Ø Natives Ø Chinese’s (pg 293) Ø African Americans (pg 182) Ø Pretty much a person’s/ nations that did not meet up with the expectations and customs of America. PG 15 Q: Anglo Americans motives to implant civilization was because of … Ø Their desire for land Ø Material, Spiritual and Political benefits Ø It was a tool to move forward PG 15 Q: What was the ‘original American dream’ ? Ø The opportunity of every white male American to Nationalism- human progression in America abandon a wage earners life for the independent (pg 152-53) life of the landowner. PG 15 Q: What distinguished colonial America from Europe in 1700s? Ø Freedom Ø Individualism Ø Rough equality among people that an expanding territory made possible. PG 16-17 Q: what brought the cycle of expansion and prosperity in the colonial era? Ø Land, it drove higher wages in the New World. PG 86 Q: what was the American Liberal Ideology? Ø Justification of expansion Ø Question of the morals regarding American conquest to gain territory by force a using their Christianity as a sense of security to constitute their actions to be honorable and justifiable. PG 87 Q: Henry Knox believed … Ø Taking natives land without consent is a ‘gr oss violation of the fundamental laws of nature and Domestic Affairs- in the U.S. Americans vs. of that distributive justice which is the glory of a Americans (relativism) nation.’ Ø A ‘natural right of man’ Foreign Affairs- Outside of U.S., involving Ø That ‘natives have a right to sell and a right to not other nations/countries. sell their land and material.” Ø America can be a powerful nation without ‘brutal conquest.’ (pg. 89) PG 87 Q: Who were against the Great Justification? Ø Washington Ø Jefferson Ø Henry Knox PG 90 Q: What is the Great Justification? Ø Native were forces to give up their land to ‘advanced American farmer and in return receive the gift of civilization.’ PG 90 Q: What was the ‘Lockean’ view of ‘ universal human nature’? Ø The idea that bad habits, bad political economy and bad government limits human possibility. PG 42-43 Q: How did universalistic nationalism shape the American attitude towards the world? National interest-the defense of a specific Ø It called them to think of national interest. territory and promotion of the well-being Ø The belief that the American fate would be tied to of the people in it (pg. 42). liberalism and republican ism. Ø The idea that is was for anyone and there were no boundaries. Ø It laid out a foundation that Americans had to stand by. PG 162-163 Q: How does the danger of idealism involve foreign policy? Legitimacy- right and acceptance of an Ø Considered a theory of freedom that contracts authority, such as a governing law … with self-interest. Ø According to Adams, ‘in all the wars of interest Practical Idealism vs. self-interest- America and intrigue of individual avarice, envy, and use of alliance between countries to cover ambition which assume the colors and usurp the up the fact that they are weak standard of freedom. Ø The American policy was the ‘change from liberty to force.’ Ø Moral vs. interest. PG 259-261 Q: How was Lincoln’s rejection of the Doctrine of self- interest a concern duty? Ø The continuation of morals or national and self interest Ø A takeoff from Adams radical observation that the American constitution is a ‘moral vicious bargain between freedom and slavery.’ Ø The involvement of natural rights as a MORAL RESPONSIBILITY. Ø ‘self-interest was a guide to human action and national action Ø Declared that all me had a duty to defend rights for him and others. Ø Lincolns looked through the lens of slavery in contrast to Jefferson’s declaration that focused on the elite white male and his rights as an American. Ø Lincolns approach toward the Declaration made it more of a foreign then domestic affair. PG 260 Q: what is Lincoln’s’ Apple of gold’ and the ‘Picture of silver’? How was it used in the issue of human and natural rights? Ø Apple of gold -declaration of Independence/Doctrine of Equality Ø Picture of silver- constitution/ compromise Ø Lincoln’s ideas was no containment, no compromise, no slavery Ø Although America could not achieve power without the constitution, the deceleration of independence is considered the ‘primary cause of prosperity.’ Despotism- a country or a political system Q: What were the key factor, compromis es and or policies that holds a superior/absolute power (pg that encouraged despotism? 235, 182) Ø Slavery Ø Missouri compromise (pg. 198) Ø Nebraska Act (pg. 234, 261) Ø Humanitarian War (pg 374) PG 192-193 Q: In contrast to the north Southern slaveholders sought … ▯ Expansion of American trade ▯ The support to search for capitalist markets ▯ Transforming effects of free international commerce ▯ According to Toqueville , southern labor was ‘confound with the idea of slavery’ … ’poor white men who worked feared being compared to black slaves.’(pg. 192) ▯ Values: traditional views, containment, family, community, slavery, supremacy. *The south ‘clings to the old way of living, determinedly preserving the structures, institutions and psychology of an older era based on the institution of slavery’- Foreign observer Tocqueville Q: In contrast to the South the North sought … ▯ Free labor (pg. 193) ▯ Northern labor ‘was ass ociated with prosperity and improvement.’ ▯ ‘Incubator of a modern breed of human’ (pg. 192) ▯ Liberal democratic capitalist ▯ Values: progression, equality, work, and abolishment Of slavery. -The north ‘embarked on a voyage into the future, driven by the relentless machine for liberal capitalism- Tocqueville. Containment- restriction of expansion. Q: What is the ‘free labor ideology? ▯ The ideology emerged extolling the virtues of work, celebrating social mobility and change, and seeking equality of opportunity. Civilization of antiquity- the contrast between two Americas illustrated the distinction between a civilizations of modernity. PG 196 Q: Why was the Missouri Compromise considered a sectional conflict? ▯ The Louisiana Purchase opened new southern and western territories to settlements by slaveholders. ▯ It created the debate of what states should be slave or free states. ▯ A battle of the political and sectional balance of power. ▯ After the compromise conflict, the U.S. could not pretend it was a single nation with a single set of national interest.’ (pg. 199) PG 197 Q: What encouraged Adams transition to anti-slavery during the Missouri Compromise? ▯ The debates in congress over the admission of Missouri into the Union. ▯ Dishonorable compromise with slavery in the Constitution. ▯ Slavery was considered a ‘bargain between freedom and slavery’ … ‘a moral vicious and inconsistent with the principles of the justification of the revolution.’ Q: Manifest Destiny and the Monroe Doctrine were both … ▯ Ideological battles regarding territories. ▯ Foreign policies that have become political debates. Q: What were the events that resulted to the influence of and by Americans regarding isolation, containment and nationalism and humanitarianism? ▯ Seven Yrs. War ▯ Cuban revolution/Latin American divided because of the influence of american slavery and independence. (pg. 375). ▯ French Revolution ▯ Greek revolution (pg. 169) ‘birthplace of democracy’ also a humanitarian issue. Humanitarian- promotion of human welfare . ▯ Spanish and American War and social reform. ▯ Missouri Compromise SECTION 3 Q: What were America’s weaknesses? Ø Domestic affairs between the federalist and anti-federalist Ø The reality of the constitution was not being expressed through the Americans actions Ø There was questioning and fear to be progressive and entanglement with the wrong foreign nations (Britain vs. France). PG 105 Q: Why did the Anti-Federalist fear the actions and viewpoints of the Federalist party? Ø they feared that expansion would lead to despotism Hamiltonians- followers of alexander Ø they want non-entanglement with Britain’s Hamilton and his notion to stay in trade because they feared America would turn into a with the British after American monarchy independence, Federalist. Ø Believed in a small federal government. Ø Containment Jeffersonian(+Madison)- followers of Ø Chose land over sea Thomas Jefferson and his notion to ally Ø Highly favored a small to none warfare or navy, with France not with Britain to stay away any changes in the political government, (Obviously, the views of the anti-feds had to give in since no monarchy (Republican/Anti-federalist) war became more protonate and containment would restrict the U.S. from being capitalist.) PG 106-108 Q: What were the contradicting view of the Federalist in regards to foreign affairs? Ø Relied on the constitution Ø Enacted tariffs to expand trade and merchandise. Ø Lived on the monarchy and the aristocracy principle. Ø Goal was to increase the commerce coming int o American by involving national debt and a strong financial system. (Anti-fed. Favored a democratic society that favored Acquisitive- Interest in acquiring money or liberty and equality against a monarchy government material. (Britain). They feared that their normal would alter for the bad, but ironically did not mind being influencers and alliances with the French.) (pg.111) PG 105 Q: What were the similarities between the anti - federalist and the federalist in foreign affairs? Ø Opposition interfering in internal affairs of other nations, yet they did just that with the British and the French. Ø Views of balance of power Non-entanglement vs. Entanglement - The Ø The desire to avoid war with great powers counter thoughts between foreign nations Ø The use of selective non -entanglement to interact with or not to interact with. Fed vs. anti-fed there is the questions of Britain or France. (pg. 125) PG 112 Q: What was Washington’s primary goal in his farewell address? Ø To defeat Jefferson’s bid for election and republicanism pro-French doctrine Ø Address the domestic health of the republic Ø Appeal for national unity against partisan and sectional strife. Ø Prevention of Americans being connected with ‘aliens’ (in this instance France). Ø Restriction in national favoritism PG 113 Q: What was the result in Hamilton’s assistance to Washington in the farewell address? Ø Rejection toward the opposition against the government. Ø No alteration to the constitution Ø The Anti-federalist though the address was viewed as an attack of the French. Ø The Federal government thought the address as a way of steering the nation in the right Neutrality Proclamation - Washington’s direction. statement that the nation is neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain. (pg. 109) Q: Who said ‘Americans should separate itse lf ENTIRLY from all of Europe’? Ø Thomas Paine Q: what was the key to American Liberalism? Ø Expansion Ø Dynamics between immigrants going west Ø GREED Ø Wealth-Property-Progression Ø Motives to move in and push others out Weak federal government resulted in a demand for land. Q: Throughout Kagan’s Dangerous Nations, What were the gridlocks that deprived America from going further on their quest for power? Ø Weak Navy Ø Lack of money due to expensive war funds Ø Lack of nobility to enforce new ideas Ø Hypocrisy, too much power given to self - interest. Ø The neutral trading with Britain Ø Domestic political affairs between parties Ø Expansion CONCLUSION (This is entirely my opinion of the book, fill free to think otherwise.) Robert Kagan explains the hippocratic oath pledged by several American politicians and citizens who claim that ‘all me are created equal, endowed by their creator with un -alienable rights …’ yet they all, at one point or another, put their interest before moral. Throughout the text, Kagan explor es the view of progression, political sovereignty, containment, national interest, political idealism vs. self interest and more to show how the power hungry nation received all it accolade. Domestic and Foreign affair inter twinned with one another as po litical parties confusingly shifted viewpoints to meet the standards in critical conditions. Frame and caste were put up of who were considered civilized and the new view point of the Deceleration of Independents was altered for a just cause. The economic and political strife between regions of America increased the division between the North, South and the West. Legitimate power and negotiation was the method America used to put on this strong persona when in-fact the nation was weak and vulnerable. But hey, that’s is America and like it or not you are an American , so what can we do about the things that have been done and is still going on in our history? I have no Idea, I’m just trying to understand the origin of this massive mess before I get to the surface. For the next reading, Pivotal Decades 1900 -1920s there is a huge shift in political ideologies, a massive influx in immigration and expansion, the introduction of a new political party, trust barriers and more. So stay tuned to the next set of notes regarding the Pivotal Decades of 1900 -1920.