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History of Journalism Lecture 1

by: Rae Knopik

History of Journalism Lecture 1 JOU4004

Rae Knopik
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About this Document

early newspapers colonial print
History of Journalism
Dr. Bernell E Tripp
Class Notes
colonial, Print, Early, newspapers, newsletters, London, America, colonies




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rae Knopik on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOU4004 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Bernell E Tripp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see History of Journalism in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
STUDYING MEDIA HISTORY….. if it was in the newspaper, it is true, so he made a mock newspaper. IV. Instrument of truth (1689) A. Increase Mather 1. “mock newspaper” 2. The Present State of the New- English Affairs first to consider the newspaper as the cure for false reports and rumors. B . Newspaper as solution to false reports & rumors 1) influenced public expectations of truth in print 2) provided foundation for role of press in American Society. STUDYING MEDIA HISTORY….. C. Mather was one of the first to consider the power of printed word. 1. (1658-1723): Wrote 135 publ. in widely diverse disciplines. 2. Used his writings to shape perceptions of his own, as well as his family’s, accomplishments & Puritan virtues 3. Explained how the Puritan ministry squarely located cause and effect of all their actions within the religious doctrine of God’s design for New England, especially Massachusetts. STUDYING MEDIA HISTORY….. here you start to see the rules of practice V. Evolutionary phases of U.S. media development w/o the church or politicians th A. 18 -century media: -defining free expression -creating journalistic voice -developing media as a tool -identifying and unifying an audience B. 19 -century media: -outlining professional standards and practices -cultivating a commodity & industry independence -meeting the needs of a diversifying audience -interpreting info for the intended audience 2 STUDYING MEDIA HISTORY….. what is the responsibility to the C. 20 -century media: -discerning responsibilities & audience’s best interestsiences and to the press -shaping professional values -adapting to technological/environmental changes D. 21 -century media: -redefining concepts of news -adapting commodity to changing environment how do you deal with these -diversifying voices, audiences, media outlets audiences and what constitutes a real medium. Can you call a blogger a journalists? 1) don't know role and now we're back here again. What constitutes news? SocMed? EARLY ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN PRESS I. For centuries, authorities controlled information for the purposes of maintaining accepted political or religious controlling the way info was given to views. the masses, how did you get II. Pre-20 Century: controlling the masses information? Village storytellers: he A. Early communication -- unofficial gatekeepers had to choose which info was the most important (unofficial 1. word-of-mouth gatekeepers), when written word 2. manuscripts for the elite - first reporters came around only very educated aka copyists, chronicled medieval life, recorded narratives/circumstances to explain institutional and legal recordth clergymen could control the media. 3. university control - 13 century EARLY ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN PRESS This alters the social structure here. This happens B. Impact of Gutenberg’s printing press (1455) with each new technological invention. The information 1. altered societal influence and power structure is decentralized aka ends Church's monopoly of info. 2. decentralized the sources of info 3. increased dissemination of info -accelerated Protestant revolt against Catholic Church. 4. provided basis of U.S. press development Gutenberg just perfected the printing press, it already existed. III. Printing operations spread to major cities in Europe A. concentrated in primary population centers B. William Caxton, first printer in England (London) 1. Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1First book printed in England. It opened Journalism. But 2. Standardized English language Canterbury Tales had a cross section of British society in one 3. Criticized for providing a basis for book. For the commoners, there were the first stories about civil unrest and disobedience of the who they were. poor. Why? Because it gave them a 4. Credited with helping to unify England with a Common Language. 3 EARLY ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN PRESS 3. Basis for civil unrest 4. Common language C. Drastic increase in adult literacy in Europe book prices dec. D. Decreased use of Latin and increased the use of wording common to particular regions E. Increased importance of authors use of indices, page numbers, tables of content, 1. revolutionized book production industry etc. 2. commercialized the written word IV. Controlling media’s influence A. Henry VIII (assumed throne in 1509): first to closely control publications 1. prior restraintensorship before it can print 2. seditious libel punishments for broken rules 3. printer licensing B. British papers: 1 developed under James I & Charles I 1. “Modern” newspapers are a European invention. *Weekly “news sheets” as early as 1566. st *1 English-lang paper: untitled news sheet in Amsterdam, Dec. 2, 1620. translations of other news in Europe 2. 1621: First newspaper (“newsbook”) printed in England (Corante, or Newes from Italy, Germany, Hungarie, Spaine and France, Sept. 1621, translated from German by Nathaniel Butter & bookseller Nicholas Bourne; Thomas Archer, publisher a. Archer imprisoned for printing w/o gov’t permission he did not have a license. b. Later released under Butter’s license 3. 1640s-1661: printing flourished in London 4 London, Cambridge, and Oxford (no more than 20 MPs) 4. 1662-1695: limited master printers *England’s first “modern” paper: Oxford Gazette, Henry Muddiman (Nov. 1665); Gov’t mouthpiece *(1666) Becomes London Gazette, after citywide plague ends. Not technically a newspaper C. 1695: non-renewal of Licensing Act Black market develops. There was no way to control it. So ^ D. 1695-1712: expansion of provincial newspapers 1. First daily in England (March 1702): Daily Courant, editor Mrs. Elizabeth Mallett (“E. Mallett”) this is where american press starts. Women were homemakers and property. V. British newspapers iaddressed to readers, creates interactive A. editorial noticesrelationship between writers and audience B. headline to draw readers’ attention sometimes laid out in large type on front page, w/simple woodcut designs, to promo later VI. U.S. newspapers coincided with development oflments. provincial newspapers A. Promoted/encouraged travel to New World and exploration of new lands encourage travel.of diaries to B. Media expansion in New World became tied to postal system & transportation routes half naked savages in cartoons to represent and advertise for the new world. Impact of Written Word in U.S. I. Printing in the colonies: A. Settlers valued printed word. 1. Promotional materials as lures, fundraising 2. Entertainment pamphlets 3. Books, maps, educational materials 4. Bibles, religious tracts B. False reports increase need for printed validation 1. Corrected rumors, augments verbal declarations 2. Fostered support for a trustworthy medium. II. First mass medium – Books but these are cumbersome A. Created new networks of communication B. Provided a variety of readers with new options 5 Impact of Written Word C. Facilitated new ways to provide information III. Early printing in U.S. dominated by books/tracts A. First printing press in Massachusetts imported by Puritans for use at Harvard College (1638) 2. tool to reach people/aid in search for truth B. public debate forced American society to confront political/social issues. C. Provided new ways of thinking America's first book (1661), Algonquin Indian Bible by Puritan John Eliot -sparked serious of convert missions Promoted idea of colonies as God's chosen country. Impact of Written Word IV. Books changed the basic functions of knowledge infrastructure A. Writing became critical to administration of power, property and education -By 12 thcentury, growth of universities moves learning outside walls of monasteries -Creates a power struggle between church and university faculty -Texts become an externalized and physical form of memory. B. Gutenberg’s printing press creates a shift in power -Printed word becomes a new source of evidence and factual knowledge. "We need a middle ground!" COLONIAL PRESS DEVELOPMENT I. Newspaper publishing lagged behind other businesses. --Colonists more concerned with education than news. --Colonists cared mostly about news back home, in England, and English newspapers. Education levels increase! II. Early U.S. newspapers A. Publication requirements: Newspaper develop their eye witnesses and travelers become importantadvantage over books. sources for information, as well as Euro news. B. Printers’ Status Audience must be rich white males. lower-mid class, males Distribution/Population/Information London trained vs (Trade route line) Colonial trained For women? Daddy or Honey is the owner of the Printing Press. 6 COLONIAL PRESS DEVELOPMENT th III. 3 Primary Printing Development Centers of 18 century: 1. New York 2. Boston 3. Philadelphia IV. Boston as newspaper hub for 1 half of 18 century A. newspaper growth followed population growth B. largest city (7,270) C. largest # of elite (10% of pop. owned 50% of wealth) V. Boston -- Newspaper center connected by professional & personal ties A. Site of four of the first five papers B. Government backing or support First Newspapers: - Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestick (first attempt at a newspaper) Appeared Sept. 25, 1690 and it was published by Benjamin Harris (Puritan). Arrived in Boston in 1689 at the town water cooler aka the Coffeehouse/bookshop. This paper was printed to prevent false reports. - first newspaper, no subscribers. - 6 in by 10 1/4 in, printed on three sides, with fourth blank so readers could add news before passing it on. - paper was to be produced "once a month, or, if any Glut of Occurrences happen, oftener." But was banned after the first issue. - No headlines, you couldn't tell easily where one story ended and where another began. - Content angered royal governor and his council. He had written about how the colonial army's alliance with Mohawks and "sanctioned" Indian raids, construed as criticism of authorities. Additionally, the french king had "taken immoral liberties" with his son's wife. **Broadside warned against public w/o "licence first obtained from those appointed by the gov't. - Harris returned to England and tried to sell other newspapers after a door to door medicine sale - Boston-Newsletter: Began April 24, 1704. Published by John Campbell (postmaster) and began as a handwritten letter of importance to main post office in 1702. People needed sequential news so later cirulated "public news-letters" to postal officials, merchants, and other affluent colonists. This increased the deman sparked printed version. - 8x12 in, two columns, 2 pages - Criticized for old news and boring writing style. 7


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