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Music History 1 Week 3 Notes

by: stoutr

Music History 1 Week 3 Notes MUSC 210

Marketplace > Xavier University > Music > MUSC 210 > Music History 1 Week 3 Notes
Xavier University

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About this Document

12-13th centuries, gothic revolution
Music History 1
Dr. Kristiansen
Class Notes
Music History, Music, history
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by stoutr on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 210 at Xavier University taught by Dr. Kristiansen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Music History 1 in Music at Xavier University.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
12th­13th centuries  ● Staff notation made for more precision in pitch while inhibiting variety  ● Earliest secular repertories were not in Latin  ● Troubadour = poet  ● Trouveres = poet­musicians  ● Canso = love song; idealized and distant  ● Pastorela = folk idiom in which a knight seduces a young shepherdess  ● Late 13th century saw formes fixes (fixed forms) (forms of poetry)  ○ Rondeau (ABaAabAB)  ○ Ballade (RaabR)  ○ Virelai (Baab[B])  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­    Secular Song and Formes Fixes    Troubadours (1100ish)  Trouveres (1200ish)  ● Southern France  ● Northern France  ● William of Aquitaine first troubadour  ● More narrative songs  ● Secular music about love, feudalism,  ● Richard the Lionheart was one  the Crusades, anything based on  ● 1208­1229 Crusade in land of  personal experience  troubadours, sending them away  ● Commoners in the company of  ● More trouvere melodies survived than  Aristocracy  troubadours   ● Jogleres ­ lowest in class; the  performers  ● Women (troubaritz) could write but not  perform music      German repertoire  Mennesinger = courtly love singer  AAB bar form                        Gothic Revolution Documentary Notes  ● Music  ○ First music in the notre Dame was a simple, single line “plainsong”  ○ Manuscripts used by the choir were lyrics only  ○ Melodies were learned by ear and memorized (took years to learn church  repertoire)  ○ Magnus Liber   ■ Published by “Anonymous IV;” first musicologist  ■ 13th century  ■ repertoire of the Notre Dame school   ■ unique and permanent record of music  ■ Two composers who contributed = Leonin and Perotin; others anonymous  ■ Composers and composers called Clarks of Matins; group from  ecclesiastical team; hired and fired yearly  ○ Viderunt Omnus  ■ Took simple songs and added long notes  ■ Introduced drone notes  ■ Put Bible text to music  ■ Smooth interlocking movement of voice  ○ Peter Abelard; theologian, musician, and poet  ○ First musical notation was just marks above the text  ○ The development of the stave was revolutionary  ○ Monochord = instrument used to give pitches and teach intervals to young  musicians  ○ Ultimate audience was God  ● Architecture  ○ Gothic architecture includes thinner walls due to the improved support system  ○ Notre Dame was a statement building  ○ Builders unknown                              Organum and Motet    St. Martial Organum (aquitaine)  ● 9 manuscripts 1100­1150  ● Melismatic organum = one line simple, one line very elaborate  ● “Ad org. Fociendum” treatise ­­ “how to do organum” ca. 1100  ● Upper voice called duplum (organum voice)  ● Lower voice, tenor (chant voice)  Notre Dame Organum  ● Anonymous IV  ○ English student living in Paris  ○ Wrote about music of Leonin and Perotin  ○ Published Magnus Liber  ■ (this was later scattered around Europe. Only presumed copies of this  exist today.)  ● Kinds of chants  ○ Gradual and Alleluia; very melismatic  ○ Responsorial; for trained soloists  ○ Discant; more or less equally voiced organum  ● Rhythmic modes, late 12th century  ○ 6 modes, only some used  ○ Determined pattern of long­short/short­long notes. Not specific  ● Motet (word piece) 13th century  ○ Clausula = part that can be inserted into organum (substitute trope)  ○ Duplum now also called motetus  ○ Triplum merged secular music with sacred music style  ● Franconian Notation  ○ Ars cantus mensurabilis 1280  ○ Note values (reinterpreted existing symbols to show rhythmic meaning)  ○ Everything in triple meter 


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