Chapter 5 Notes
Chapter 5 Notes APR 221
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylin Wallen on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 221 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Michael Little in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Chapter 5: Communication and Consumer Behavior Communication: What Makes Advertising Unique For communication to be effective, the marketer must construct a message that is meaningful to consumers and will elicit the desired behavior The Human Communication Process: (Chart on pg. 123) Source: The party that formulates the idea, encodes it as a message, and sends it via some channel to the receiver Because the receiver’s perception of the source influences the effectiveness of the communication, the spokesperson must appear to be knowledgeable, trustworthy, and relevant to the audience Message: In oral communication, the idea formulated and encoded by the source and sent to the receiver The information contained in a message must be Encoded: Translating an idea or message into words, symbols, and illustrations Use words or symbols familiar to the intended audience The message may be verbal or nonverbal Semiotics: The study of how humans use words, gestures, signs, and symbols to convey feelings, thoughts, ideas, and ideologies Channel: Any medium through which an encoded message is sent to a receiver, including oral communication, print media, television, and the Internet The means by which the encoded message travels from the source to the receiver Can be… Personal Channels: Means of communication that involve direct contact between the parties, such as personal selling Nonpersonal Channels: Means of communication that don’t involve interpersonal contact between the sender and the receiver. Examples would include advertising, publicity, and sales promotion Receiver: In oral communication, this party decodes the message to understand it Usually the consumer who receives the advertiser’s message The advertiser must always be concerned about how the consumer will Decode: To interpret a message by the receiver Noise: The sender’s advertising message competing daily with hundreds of other commercial and noncommercial messages Feedback: A message that acknowledges or responds to an initial message Verifies that the message was received Feedback can take many forms: redeemed coupons, phone inquires, visits to a store, requests for more information, increased sales, responses to a survey, e-mail inquiries, clicks on a banner ad Audiences of advertising are now active decision makers who can control what communications they receive and choose the information they want about a particular product Interactive Media: Media such as the Internet and interactive television that permit consumers to give instantaneous, real-time feedback on the same channel used by the original message sender (Chart on pg. 125) Marketers no longer dominate the exchange of messages, but are engaged in a conversation with consumers who send their own messages, both to the marketer and to other consumers Consumer Behavior: The Key to Advertising Strategy Effective communication happens when the marketer selects a relevant source, develops an appropriate message, encodes it correctly, and then finds a suitable medium that will best reach the target audience Advertisers need to understand what makes potential customers behave the way they do Goal: get enough relevant market data to develop accurate profiles of buyers—to find the common ground (and symbols) for communication Consumer Behavior: The activities, actions, and influences of people who purchase and use goods and services to satisfy their personal or household needs and wants Consumer Decision Process: The series of steps a consumer goes through in deciding to make a purchase (Chart on pg. 126) Steps in the decision process: 1. Problem recognition 2. Information search 3. Evaluation and selection 4. Store choice and purchase 5. Post-purchase behavior (positive or negative experience) Personal Processes: The three internal, human operations—perception, learning, and motivation—that govern the way consumers discern raw data (stimuli) and translate them into feelings, thoughts, beliefs, and actions Our mental processes and behavior are affected by: Interpersonal Influences: Social influences on the consumer decision-making process, including family, society, and cultural environment Nonpersonal Influences: Factors influencing the consumer decision-making process that are often out of the consumer’s control, such as time, place, and environment Evaluation of Alternatives: Choosing among brands, sizes, styles, and colors Pos-purchase Evaluation: Determining whether a purchase has been a satisfactory or unsatisfactory one Will influence our subsequent purchases Check Yourself: 1. What is meant by noise and how might it affect an advertiser’s efforts? 2. What are key differences between human communication and advertising communication? Personal Processes in Consumer Behavior Personal processes of consumer behavior: 1. Create awareness (perception) that the product exists 2. Provide enough compelling information (learning and persuasion) about the product for prospective customers to become interested and make an informed decision 3. You want your advertising to stimulate customers’ desire (motivation) to satisfy their needs and wants by trying the product By studying these, advertisers can better evaluate how their messages are perceived Perception: Our personalized way of sensing and comprehending stimuli The information we receive through our five senses Stimulus: Physical data that can be received through the senses Perceptual Screens: The psychological pr physiological filters that messages must pass through Help us to accept or reject symbolic ideas Subconscious filters that shield us from unwanted messages Physiological Screens: Detect incoming data and measure the dimension and intensity of the stimuli Each consumer uses psychological screens to evaluate, filter, and personalize information according to subjective standards. Uses the five senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell) Cognition: The point of awareness and comprehension of a stimulus How we store information for later use Self-Concept: The images we carry in our minds of the type of person we are and who we desire to be Mental Files: Stored memories in consumers’ minds Check Yourself: 1. Why do we use perceptual screens to filter the ads to which we are exposed? 2. What does the term consumer behavior refer to, and why is it important to advertisers? Learning: A relatively permanent change in thought processes or behavior that occurs as a result of reinforced experience Affects behavior Theories of Learning: Cognitive Theory: An approach that views learning as a mental process of memory, thinking, and the rational application of knowledge to practical problem solving How we learn from the experience of others & how we evaluate a complex purchase (insurance, stocks, etc.) More applicable in high involvement purchases Conditioning Theory: The theory that learning is a trial-and-error process Also called… Stimulus-response Theory: Some stimulus triggers a consumer’s need or want, and this in turn creates a need to respond More applicable in low involvement/everyday purchases Consumer Involvement: How important or relevant a decision is to a consumer More important and personally relevant decisions result in greater involvement Persuasion: A change in thought process or behavior that occurs when the change in belief, attitude, or behavioral intention is caused by promotion communication (such as advertising or personal selling) Elaboration Likelihood Model (Chart on pg. 131): A theory of how persuasion occurs. It proposes that the method of persuasion depends on the consumer’s level of involvement with the product and the message Central Route to Persuasion: When a consumer’s level of involvement is high, the central route to persuasion is more likely. In the central route to persuasion, consumers are more motivated to pay attention to product- related information, such as product attributes and benefits. Because of their high involvement, they tend to learn cognitively and comprehend the ad-delivered information at deeper, more elaborate levels Peripheral Route to Persuasion: When consumers have low involvement with a product pr message, they have little reason to pay attention to or comprehend the central message of the ad. However, these consumers might attend to some peripheral aspects of an ad for its entertainment value. Consistent with stimulus-response theory, consumers may respond to the message at a later date, when a purchase occasion arises Most mass media advertising receives peripheral processing Repeat messages penetrate customers’ perceptual screens by rekindling memories of information from prior ads Learning Produces Attitudes and Interest Attitude: The acquired mental position—positive or negative—regarding some idea or object An important advertising objective is developing messages that foster positive consumer attitudes Brand Interest: An individual’s openness or curiosity about a brand Learning Leads to Habits and Brand Loyalty Attitude is the mental side, and habit is the behavioral side Habit: An acquired behavior pattern that has become nearly or completely automatic The natural extension of learning Most consumer behavior is habitual for 3 reasons: It’s safe, simple, and essential The major objective of all brand marketers is to produce Brand Loyalty: The consumer’s conscious or unconscious decision—expressed through intention or behavior—to repurchase a brand continually. Usually occurs because the consumer perceives that the brand has the right product features, image, quality, or relationship at the right price 3 aims in the quest for brand loyalty: 1. Breaking Habits. Get consumers to try something new. Advertisers frequently use incentives to lure consumers away from old brands or stores. It is very hard to get consumers to change their habits. 2. Acquiring Habits. Teach consumers to repurchase their brand. 3. Reinforcing Habits. Remind customers of the value of their original purchase and encourage them to continue purchasing. Ex: frequent flyer miles Learning Defines Needs and Wants The learning process is immediate and long term Check Yourself: 1. What is the difference between the central route and the peripheral route to persuasion? 2. What is the difference between the cognitive theory and the conditioning theory of learning? 3. What is the role of involvement in learning and persuasion? Motivation: The underlying drives that stem from the conscious or unconscious needs of the consumer and contribute to the individual consumer’s purchasing actions Needs: The basic, often instinctive, human forces that motivate us to do something Wants: Needs learned during a person’s lifetime Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow’s theory that the lower biological or survival needs are dominant in human behavior and must be satisfied before higher, socially acquired needs become meaningful (chart on pg. 134) Negatively Originated Motives: Consumer purchase and usage based on problem removal or problem avoidance. To relieve such feelings, consumers actively seek a new or replacement product Informational Motives: The negatively originated motives, such as problem removal or problem avoidance, that are the most common energizers of consumer behavior Positively Originated Motives: Consumer’s motivation to purchase and use a product based on a positive bonus that the product promises, such as sensory gratification, intellectual stimulation, or social approval Transformational Motives: Positively originated motives that promise to “transform” the consumer through sensory gratification, intellectual stimulation, and social approval Aka “Reward” Motives Before creating messages, advertisers must carefully consider the goals that lead to consumer motivations Check Yourself: 1. What are the various approaches that advertisers use to develop brand loyalty among customers? 2. What type of motive is related to being transformed in a sensory, intellectual, or social sense? Interpersonal Influences on Consumer Behavior Interpersonal Influences: Social influences on the consumer decision-making process, including family, society, and cultural environment Family Influence Greatly diminished in the US over the last 35 years From an early age family communication affects our socialization as consumers This influence is usually strong, and usually long-lasting Societal Influence Social Classes: Traditional divisions in societies by sociologists—upper, upper- middle, lower-middle, and so on—who believed that people in the same social class tended toward similar attitudes, status symbols, and spending patterns Today, this doesn’t apply to most developed countries Reference Groups: People we try to emulate or whose approval concerns us Can be personal or impersonal Opinion Leader: Someone whose beliefs, or attitudes are respected by people who share an interest in some specific activity Spokesperson for a campaign Cultural and Sub cultural Influence Culture: A homogenous group’s whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things, typically handed down from generation to generation When creating ads for foreign consumption, marketers must consider: cultural trends, social norms, changing fads, market dynamics, product needs, and media channels Subculture: A segment within a culture that shares a set of meanings, values, or activities that differ in certain respects from those of the overall culture Check Yourself: 1. What is a reference group and why is it important? 2. What is a culture? How does it differ from a subculture? The Purchase Decision and Post Purchase Evaluation Evoked Set: The particular group of alternative goods or services a consumer considers when making a buying decision Evaluative Criteria: The standards a consumer uses for judging the features and benefits of alternative products Cognitive Dissonance: The theory that people try to justify their behavior by reducing the degree to which their impressions or beliefs are inconsistent with one another Different Responses From Different Products FCB Grid: A two-dimensional model that categorizes consumer products into four quadrants based on “high involvement” or “low involvement” and “think” or “feel.” By positioning brands in the grid, an agency can determine the type of advertising that would be most appropriate. A product’s location on the grid indicates how the product is purchased and how advertising copy should be written (more emotional or more rational) Kim-Lord Grid: A variation of the FCB grid, which allows for the fact that the level of consumer involvement in a product does not have to be high “think” and low “feel” (or vice versa) but can be high (or low) in both categories
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