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Week 6, Inside The Cell

by: Latoria Notetaker

Week 6, Inside The Cell Bio 160

Latoria Notetaker
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About this Document

Chapter seven
Cellular and Molecular Biology
John Koontz
Class Notes




Popular in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Latoria Notetaker on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 160 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by John Koontz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 273 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Chapter  7  Notes         Inside  the  cell     All  cells  have:   1.DNA   2.  Plasma  membrane   3.  Cytoplasm   4.  Cytoskeleton     5.  Ribosomes   6.  Carbohydrates     Two  Types  of  cells:   -­‐Prokaryotes  (bacteria  and  archaea)   -­‐Eukaryotes  (algae,  fungi,  plants  and  animals)     Prokaryotes   -­‐lack  membrane  bound  nucleus   -­‐most  bacterial  cells  can  vary  in  shape  and  size,  but  most  contain:   •   Plasma  membrane   •   A  single  chromosome   •   Ribosomes   •   Stiff  cell  wall     Genetic  Information   -­‐   A  large  supercoiled  circular  chromosome  is  found  in  the  nucleoid   o   Chromosome  contains  long  strand  of  DNA  and  supportive  proteins   -­‐   Some  have  plasmids   o   Plasmids  are  small,  supercoiled,  circular  DNA  molecules     Inside  Prokaryotes   -­‐ribosomes,  responsible  for  protein  synthesis   -­‐some  have  photosynthetic  membranes   -­‐many  is  supported  by  a  cytoskeleton  of  long,  thin  protein  filaments   -­‐some  have  organelles  that  contains  enzymes  or  structures  specialized  for  a  particular  function     Outside  Prokaryotes   -­‐tail-­‐like  flagella  that  spin  around  to  move  the  cell   -­‐cell  wall,  surrounds  the  plasma  membrane     Eukaryotes  consist  of:   -­‐nucleus,  information  storage  and  processing   -­‐nuclear  envelope,  function  as  doors  into  and  out  the  nucleus   -­‐ribosomes,  protein  synthesis  and  can  be  attached  to  the  rough  ER  or  free  in  the  cytosol   -­‐The  endomembrane  system   •   Composed  of  the  smooth  ER,  rough  ER,  and  Golgi  Apparatus   •   Function  is  to  carry  out  protein  and  lipid  synthesis   •   Proteins  are  packaged  into  vesicles  when  they  move  from  (Rough  ER,  cis-­‐  Golgi,  trans-­‐   Golgi,  vesicles)   -­‐Rough  ER   •   Synthesize  proteins   •   New  proteins  are  folded  and  processed   -­‐Smooth  ER   •   Enzymes  may  synthesize  fatty  acids  and  phospholipids     •   Break  down  poisonous  lipids   -­‐Golgi  Apparatus   •   Processes,  sorts,  and  ships  proteins  synthesized  in  the  rough  ER   •   Proteins  enter  at  the  cis-­‐face  and  pass  through  cisternae  before  exiting  at  the  trans-­‐face     The  Signal  Hypothesis   •   Predicts  that  proteins  bound  for  the  endomembrane  system  have  a  “zipcode”  that   directs  it  to  the  ER   •   The  “zipcode”  is  a  20  amino  acid  long  ER  signal  sequence   •   The  ER  signal  sequence  binds  to  a  signal  recognition  particle  (SRP)  that  binds  to  a   receptor  in  the  ER  membrane   •    In  rough  ER  proteins  are  folded  and  glycosylated   •   Proteins  with  no  ER  signal  sequence  are  released  into  the  cytosol   •       Pulse  Chase  Experiments   •   Step  one  pulse  with  radiolabeled  version  the  amino  acid   •   Step  two  wash  out  and  remove  excess   •   Step  three  chase-­‐  collect  samples  over  time  and  measure   •   Purpose  is  to  mark  a  population  of  molecules  at  a  particular  interval  then  follow  their   fate  over  time     Pulse  Chase  Results         •   Immediately  after  the  pulse,  most  of  the  newly  synthesized  proteins  are  inside  this  cell’s   rough  ER.     •   At  37  minutes  into  the  chase,  most  of  the  labeled  proteins  entered  the  golgi  apparatus,   and  some  are  accumulated  inside  secretory  vesicles   •   By  the  end,  at  117  minutes,  most  labeled  proteins  entered  either  secretory  vesicles  or   were  secreted  from  the  cells.     Other  components  of  Eukaryotes   -­‐lysosomes   •   have  enzymes  used  for  digestion  and  waste  processing   -­‐mitochondria   •   Composed  of  inner  membrane  (cristae)  and  mitochondrial  matrix  (inside  cristae)   •   Major  function  is  to  produce  ATP   -­‐cytoskeleton   •   Composed  of  protein  fibers   •   Gives  the  cell  shape  and  structural  stability   •   Aids  cell  movement   •   Transport  materials  within  the  cell   -­‐peroxisomes   •   Are  the  center  for  oxidation  reactions       The  major  difference  between  the  two  are  that  eukaryotes  tend  to  have  much  more  extensive   inner  membrane  systems  and  larger  numbers  of  intracellular  organelles  than  do  prokaryotes.    


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