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Music 101- Week 4 Notes

by: Zackary Windham

Music 101- Week 4 Notes Music 101

Marketplace > Brigham Young University > Music > Music 101 > Music 101 Week 4 Notes
Zackary Windham

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Notes from Ch. 16-18, 21, and Prelude 3 in The Enjoyment of Music, as well as music from class days September 21st and 23rd. Notes on the songs we were required to listen to will be included in the...
Introduction to Music
Hannah C. McLaughlin
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zackary Windham on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 101 at Brigham Young University taught by Hannah C. McLaughlin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at Brigham Young University.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Unit 2: Medieval through Baroque The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 16, “Singing in Friendship: The Renaissance Madrigal”  Many friends sing when they get together to celebrate; one monophonic example is “Happy Birthday”. Western culture also has social part song, where there are separate harmonious parts.  Two important genres rise from the union of poetry and music: French chanson and the Italian madrigal. The madrigal is known for word-painting, or making the music reflect the words.  The madrigal in the 16 century was the most important secular genre of the era; an aristocratic form of poetry and music that flourished in Italian courts. During the early period of the madrigal, its purpose was to give pleasure to amateur performers. As the genre grew in complexity, professionals were hired to sing alongside. Eventually the madrigal grew to simply reflect its composer’s musical personality and feelings.  Jacques Arcadelt was an Italian composer who was famous mainly for writing madrigals. He wrote Il bianco e dolce cigno, which means “The White and Sweet Swan”.  In madrigal poetry, death often referred to sexual climax; a double meaning.  John Farmer was an English composer who followed the Italian style of madrigals. He wrote Fair Phyllis, a humorous song about a young boy’s quest for a shepherdess. 21 Sep 2016  Renaissance = Rebirth  Before the coming of Christ, there was Classical Antiquity; when the seeds of Western culture were planted. However, a lot of that is lost in the middle ages. But during the Renaissance, there is a newfound interest in classical antiquity. They wanted to recreate the art of ancient Greece and Rome.  During the Renaissance, technology expanded (printing press), the middle class grew, education grows and moves out of church, there were more voyages of discovery, the Reformation happens, there’s a resurgence in Ancient Culture (in architecture, manuscripts, sculpture), and the newly rich are able to pay performing musicians; patronage.  Humanism- A philosophy that believes the world is a beautiful place and man is capable of doing amazing things. They use senses to perceive truth, not just the Bible. They believed in beauty for its own sake. In the Middle Ages, art was a symbol. But in the Renaissance, art was just beautiful.  How do we make music beautiful? -Focus on consonant harmony; don’t just use a bunch of fifths like in organum. -Create intricate and elaborate rhythms. -Exploit the beauty of the human voice. -Make the music accessible and easy to understand; very different from Machaut. -Let the music reflect the text; word-painting.  In the Renaissance, thirds are great, in contrast to fifths in the Middle Ages. Any dissonances were very tightly controlled. Imitative polyphony and homophony becomes popular, in contrast to the monophony and simply polyphony of the Middle Ages. 2  Imitative polyphony- a round is an example. However, in many classical examples, they don’t follow it exactly; sometimes the lines will branch off and do their own thing.  Ave Maria… Virgo Serena is a motet, a sacred work with Latin text for use in religious services, written by Josquin de Prez. It is written in imitative polyphony, but ends in homorhythm. Ends with a triad.  The Counter-Reformation: The Catholics strike back. Giovanni Palestrina is a Catholic hired by the Pope to be the church’s composer. He tried to make Catholic music more beautiful and understandable, sort of taking the idea from the protestants. He wrote Pope Marcellus Mass. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 17, “Remember Me: Personalizing the Motet in the Renaissance”  Religious belief continues to be important during the Italian Renaissance, alongside the secular music; however, this focus began to shift to a more personal connection to the divine.  People gained more confidence in their own problem solving abilities and their ability to see the world rationally; part of humanism.  The sixteenth century was the golden age of a cappella, music with just voices. Imitative polyphony was important in this a cappella style. Remember that in imitation, the voices sing similar phrases, but not identical ones.  Musicians begin to lean away from the fifths and octaves of the Medieval times and use thirds and sixths for harmony.  In a polyphony, a fixed melody is referred to as the cantus firmus. 3  Motet- a sacred work with a Latin text, for use in Mass and other religious services. Usually worship the Virgin Mary.  Josquin de Prez was a large part of humanism school of thought; an influential composer who wrote Ave Maria… virgo serena. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 18, “Glory Be: Music for the Renaissance Mass”  During church reform in the 1500s, Protestants argued to keep sacred music as a plainchant, while the Catholics embraced the idea of musical complexity for their worship.  The Mass is a solemn ritual of the Catholic church, a reenactment of Christ’s Last Supper. It has two sections; the Ordinary, which stays constant in every Mass, and the Proper, which varies depending on what is being celebrated.  The five prayers in the Ordinary are the Kyrie, a prayer for mercy; the Gloria, a joyful hymn of praise; the Credo, the confession of faith; the Sanctus, another song of praise; and the Agnus Dei, sung three times with different concluding words each times.  Around the time when Josquin de Prez dies, major religious reforms spread across northern Europe. Martin Luther begins the Reformation. Both Luther and John Calvin believed in simply, monophonic congregational singing.  The Catholic Church begins the Counter-Reformation, to combat those leaving the church and brings them back. They hire Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina to add to the collection of church music with more beautiful music to help appeal to the masses. 4  Palestrina was very important; wrote largely sacred music in pure a cappella style. Wrote the Pope Marcellus Mass. 23 Sep 2016  Palestrina wrote Pope Marcellus Mass. Several different parts to it.  Primarily homophonic, but some polyphony in the “Gloria” section. Remember that there were no dynamics written still.  In secular music, there came about the Italian Madrigal, originally designed for amateur performers in private settings. It was written in vernacular, common language; not Latin. Usually suggestive and metaphorical in nature. The music matches the text; word-painting or madrigalisms.  The rise of the middle and class and invention of the printing press created a market for music for the masses.  During the time period, to be considered part of higher society you needed to know how to read music.  Fair Phyllis- when Phyllis is sitting “all alone”, one singer is singing. When they sing about her flock, the flock joins in. And when they say “up and down”, they go up and down in pitch. Changes to triple meter when they’re kissing; like a waltz. The Enjoyment of Music- Prelude 3, “Music as Exploration and Drama”  Musicians set out during the 1600s and early 1700s to develop musical approaches designed to “ramp up” various emotional states. 5  Virtuosos being to appear; specialized musicians who made the amateur singing tradition of the Renaissance seem bland.  The period between 1600 and 1750 was a time of great cultural upheaval and change; the New World, Galileo’s astronomical findings, etc.  Baroque art projected the pomp and splendor of the era. The Baroque had a love for the dramatic.  A period of absolute monarchy.  The middle classes created their own culture, with the comic opera and novel.  In the Baroque era, music began to shift away from the polyphonic style and towards a homophonic style, where one melody is prominent.  A new form of notation, figured bass, came about, where the composer simply writes what kind of chord is necessary and the musicians fill in the notes needed. The system is known is basso continuo.  The basso continuo system established major-minor tonality, making it so that the thrust to the tonic was the most essential part of most music at this point.  The equal temperament system of tuning was invented, which allowed instruments to play in every possible key without sounding terrible. Today, our ears are used to this tuning system; it’s how pianos are tuned.  Musicians begin to use dynamics to allow their pieces to be more expressive; for this same reason, dissonance is much more widely used in music.  Improvisation was also an important part of Baroque music. 6 The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 21, “Performing Grief: Purcell and Early Opera”  The aim of opera is not realistic depiction but “hyper- reality”. An opera is a large-scale drama that is sung.  The opera uses recitative, a type of singing that imitates the natural inflections of speech.  Recitative will sometimes give way to aria, a usually highly emotional song that breaks forth out of the speaking style of recitative. Arias take place in “stop time”, where all the other characters are frozen, and the plot has paused.  An overture is played by an orchestra at the beginning of the opera, and it generally introduces ideas played upon in the arias. Between scenes are played interludes or sinfonias.  The libretto or script must be written to give the composer an opportunity to write music for the diverse numbers.  The Puritans banned stage plays, but Opera managed to slide past as it was passed off as a concert.  Henry Purcell wrote Dido and Aeneas. He was an English composer who mainly wrote masques and operas. 7


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