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Biology, Week 1 notes (introductory)

by: Genesis Perez

Biology, Week 1 notes (introductory) Bio 100

Marketplace > Penn State Abington > Biology > Bio 100 > Biology Week 1 notes introductory
Genesis Perez
Penn State Abington
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About this Document

These notes are part of the exam for tomorrow. These only cover the first chapter (which is the introductory)
The Study of Life
Professor McGuire
Class Notes
Biology, scientific method




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Genesis Perez on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 100 at Penn State Abington taught by Professor McGuire in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see The Study of Life in Biology at Penn State Abington.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Introductory: The essence of science What is science all about? 1 Explore the living part of bio. 2 Create theories 3 Define what is good or acceptable science Scientists make observations 1 Judgement comes with observing 2 Characterize objects through observations 3 Scientist are not completely objective, not opinionated 4 Open minded "tentative nature" a Ex: Einstein change the world 2 Subjectivity: the thought that humans are able to repeat the same patterns (do the same things) and conclusions with similar learning. What can scientists study? 1 Inter-subjectivity: the psychological relationship in people. a Branches of natural science: Biology, chemistry, physics, psychology.. 2 CANNOT study subjectivity or topics embedded with personal beliefs a Religious, poetry, art The scientific method 1 An overall way that science is performed 2 The use of logic to resolve an issue. Everything that is observed has a natural explanation. 3 The scientific method does not determine what science is. a Scientists use various forms of inquiry to explore the world i the use of questions to explore certain subjects ii Two major processes uses of scientific exploration 1 Discovery science 2 Hypothesis based science Discovery science 1 Carefully analyze and observe the natural world (or wild life), making specific observations  Types of data a Recorded written words-observations b Numbers a Ex: how many legs, how many babies, number of cells, measurements  Scientists use inductive reasoning or logical processes to obtain their answers using observations o Ex: Jane Goodall Hypothesis based science 1 A central idea before performing a study or testing based on past explorations and analysis The scientific method 1 Hypothesis: "small idea" one has 2 A provisional statement or idea used a`s an explanation to conduct an experiment. An educated guess 3 Hypothesis may change during an experiment a New data may back up or change the hypothesis but NEVER PROVE IT 2 Good science never ends. 3 Test one hypothesis at a time to be able to detect which variables are working, and which are not a Ex: if bulb & batteries are changed at the same time there will not be a way to know the solution, since both were changed at the same time. Properties of a hypothesis 1 It must be able to be proven 2 It must be able to gain a negative answer 3 Clearly stated 4 Should be able to form a hypothesis or guess before hand 5 "if…then.." covers all of the 'properties' Designing controlled experiments 1 It must be examination-able An example of a "A design of a controlled group" 1 Must have: controlled experiment  Controlled group and experimental group 1 Rats: bladder cancer examination Performing experiments 1 Controlled experiments 2 Independent variable: the variable that is tested for. In this case the sweetener. 3 Dependent variable: what is measured. a Ex: the number of rats that gain cancer 2 Controlled variables are the factors outside of the experiments that have to be taken into account (kept constant) in both groups that could affect it. a Specie, food/ water genetics, size/age, habitat, sex of rat, health 2 HYPOTHESIS: if the mice are fed sweetener, then they will develop cancer. 3 Conclusion: direct correlation between the amount of sweetener and amount of bladder cancer Experimental design 1 Be aware of the monetary expenses and base budget on that. 2 Do not exaggerate the findings and results. Be careful with the conclusions!


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