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BIOL 1543, Chapter 3 Class Notes

by: Kenzie Miller

BIOL 1543, Chapter 3 Class Notes BIOL 1543

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Biology > BIOL 1543 > BIOL 1543 Chapter 3 Class Notes
Kenzie Miller
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About this Document

These notes cover main concepts in chapter 3
Principles of Biology
Dr. Shadwick
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Miller on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1543 at University of Arkansas taught by Dr. Shadwick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Chapter 3 Highlight​= Key Term Highlight​= Major Concept Highlight​= Important person What is the most likely cause of disease? Microorganisms invading the body The microscope ● A revolution for understanding life ● Robert Hooke​ described cells in 1665, cork cells ● Light microscope: ​ Visible light passes through a specimen, then through glass lenses, and finally is projected into the viewer's eye. Cell Theory ● All organisms are composed of one or more cells ● Cells are the basic living unit of structure and function in organisms ● All cells come only from other cells Microscope ● Magnification is the increase in an object's image size compared with its actual size ● Resolution is a measure of the clarity of an images ability of an instrument to show 2 nearby objects as separate Scanning Electron Microscope ● Study the detail external architecture of a cell surface ● Images from an electron microscope are black and white Transmission Electron Microscope ● Study the details of internal cell structure What structures do all cells have in common? ● Cell Membrane ● DNA ● Cytoplasm ● Ribosome Plasma Membrane ● All cells surrounded by plasma membrane ○ Boundary and gatekeeper ● The semifluid medium inside of a cell is the cytoplasm ○ Composed of water, salts, and dissolved organic molecules ● Fluid mosaic pattern Prokaryotic ● No nucleus ● Dna is in the Nucleoid Name all the structures of t​ ucleus ● Nuclear envelope ● Nuclear pores ● Nucleolus ● Chromatin Vacuoles ● Store things in cells ● Could even hold poison such as cyanide ● Can be pigments Photosynthesis ● Solar energy + CO2 + H20 → Carbohydrate + Oxygen ○ Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have this ability ○ Solar energy is the ultimate source of energy for most cells Cellular Respiration ● In mitochondria ○ All organisms connect chemical energy into ATP ○ ATP is used for all energy-requiring processes in cells ● Carbohydrate + Oxygen → Energy + CO2 + H20 Name all parts of ​ itochondria ● DNA ● Membrane ● Matrix ● Ribosomes ● Cristae(inner foldings of inner membrane) What type of human cells would you expect to have more mitochondria? Muscle cells True or False: Plant cells and animal cells both have mitochondria True ● The cell’s internal skeleton helps organize its structure and activities ○ Cells contain a network of protein fibers, cytoskeleton, organize the structures and activities of the cell ■ Proteins of the cytoskeleton stained with a fluorescent dye Actin Filaments ● 2 long, thin, flexible actin chains twisted in helix ● Roles ○ Provides structure as dense web under plasma membrane ○ Form projections in intestinal cells as microvilli ○ Allow for formation of pseudopods in amoeboid movement ○ Provide the measurement for muscle contraction ○ Interacts with motor molecules for movement ■ example : muscle cells ○ In the presence of ATP, myosin pulls actin along ■ Add ATP to actin and muscle will flex Microtubules ● Hollow cylinders made of tubulin protein (α and β ) ● Assembly ○ Controlled by microtubule organizing center ○ Most important MTOC is centrosome ● Roles ○ Help maintain shape ○ Interact with motor molecules kinesin and dynein to cause movement of organelles ○ Form spindle apparatus during cell division True or False: You have cells that make cilia or flagella? True Male's-flagella in sperm Females- cilia in throat (smokers cough and kill the cilia) Cilia and Flagella ● Hairlike projections that aid in cell movement ○ In eukaryotes, cilia are much shorter than flagella ○ Both membrane-bound cylinders ■ Examples ● Paramecia move by cilia ● Cells of the upper respiratory tract use cilia Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell ● Endosymbiotic theory- ​ mitochondria and chloroplasts derived from prokaryotes that were taken up by a larger cell ○ Mitochondria were originally heterotrophic bacteria ○ Chloroplasts were originally cyanobacteria ○ After entering the host cell, the bacteria began living together cooperatively Endosymbiotic Theory 1. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar to bacteria in size and in structure 2. Both organelles are bounded by a double membrane- the outer membrane may be derived from the engulfing vesicle, and the inner one may be derived from the plasma membrane of the original prokaryote 3. Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain a limited amount of genetic material and divide by splitting. Their DNA is a circular loop like that of prokaryotes 4. Although most proteins within mitochondria and chloroplasts are now produced by the eukaryotic host, they do have their own ribosomes and they do produce some proteins. Their ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes. 5. The RNA base sequence of the ribosomes in chloroplasts and mitochondria also suggests a prokaryotic origin of these organelles


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