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ANSC 2000 set 8

by: Kaitlyn Elliott

ANSC 2000 set 8 ANSC 2000 - 001

Kaitlyn Elliott

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This set of notes covers information about human/animal interactions. There is a set of flashcards attached, the flashcards are attached to an app called flashquiz so if they do not show up initial...
Companion Animal Management
Carolyn E Huntington
Class Notes
animal, Science
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Elliott on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 2000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Carolyn E Huntington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Companion Animal Management in Animal Science at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
ANSC 2000 notes 8 Human/ Animal Interactions Key Terms: 1. Human­animal bond­ unique relationship between the pet & its owner which is loosely  defined as companionship, fun, security & protection, service, etc. 2. Zoonosis­ communicable diseases shared between species Memorize:  Elderly with companion animals study revealed: - # of pets that greet owners when coming home:  91% - # of pets that seemed to understand when spoken to:  84% - # of pets that communicated to owners:  78% - # of pets that were sensitive to the moods of their owners:  63%  How many Americans take their dog along on vacation: More than half  National Pet Owner Survey Results: - # of all US households that own one or more pets: 62% - # of all owners that consider their pets as children or family members:50% - # of all pet owners that talk to their pets:   Virtually all   - # of owners that purchase gifts for their pets & celebrate their birthd60% - # of owners that buy them treats on a regular basis: 65% - # of US owners that display their pet’s picture at home: 41% - # of American’s cats & dogs that sleep on the owner’s beds: 66%  Questionnaire to collect self­reported physical activity & walking over a week: - # of dog owners that walk their dog: 40­80% Important Information:  The human­companion animal bond began to be discussed & written about extensively in the 20  century  Prior to 1980, literature was case studies & anecdotal  Sentimental responses brought forth to unite people - Newspapers, children’s books, magazines  Human­companion animal bond is similar throughout most of the world - Most cultures have positive attitude towards pets - Even those without pets share the same positive feelings about them  Person’s health & well­being may be improved  For single people & childless couples, pets can act as a surrogate child  The human­animal bond is complex & a motivating factor for having pets in home  The success of anyone involved in veterinary practice should understand the human­ animal bond to be successful  Human health is a difficult concept to define because it is more than the presence or  absence of disease, but rather “quality of life”  Positives tied to human health: - Psychological & physiological changes - Improved social development  - Better physical health - Use of assistance animals  Negatives tied to human health: - Communicable disease & injury - Aesthetic offenses & nuisance   How pets help people: - Pets can teach: 1. Responsibility 2. Loyalty 3. Empathy 4. Sharing 5. Unconditional love 6. Caregiving - Pets can serve as therapists through animal­assisted therapy programs - Pets serve as helpers o Serve as hands, ears, eyes of humans  o Assistance dogs provide independence  - Pets as healers: o Good for emotional & physical health o Provides sense of purpose & fulfillment o Lessen feelings of loneliness & isolation for all age groups - Can benefit elderly o Offers physical benefits by helping them remain active & healthy o Provide sense of well­being & encouragement o Reason for living if outlived other loved ones  Physiological/Psychological Effects: 1. Lower blood pressure of people under moderate stress in presence of friendly  dogs 2. Relaxing effects of watching ornamental fish  - Serves as analytic 3. Moderate stress in elderly 4. Relaxant for hyper­tensives 5. Level of attachment to pets of psychiatric patients inversely proportional to their  depression 6. Increased amount of exercise taken by new dog owners compared with non­ owners 7. Improvements in activity after dog­visiting programs at long­stay hospitals 8. Decreases in anti­social behavior in emotionally disturbed youth 9. Pet owners amongst medicare patients were more able to cope with stressful life  events than non­owners 10. Equally clear that unsuitable animals introduced carelessly will have undesirable  effects  Benefits from children brought up in the presence of animals: - Better non­verbal communications - Popularity & social competence - Higher levels of self­esteem - More positive feelings about animals - Lower levels of fear  Educational role for animals in social development: - Children develop fantasy games - Provide safe outlet for confidences otherwise left unsaid st  Things encountered for the 1  time with a pet: - Life, reproduction, birth - Healthy activeness - Illnesses & accidents - Death & bereavement   Positives of pets involved in social development: - Increased physical activity - Nonjudgmental, unwavering affection for pet - Unquestioning allegiance of pet - Soft, furry nature of animals appeals to basic requirement for comforting textures o “Security blanket effect” - See & learn from an animal corrected in its behavior but is still loved   Downfalls of pets involved in social development: - Unsuitable animals put children at risk - Excessively dependent relationship may prejudice those with other humans - Over­dependence can lead to mental trauma if animal dies  Pets contribute to the development of: 1. A child’s basic sense of trust through pet’s constancy, security, reliability, love &  affection 2. A sense of autonomy & initiative through pet’s serving as an active e playmate &  promoting exploration of the environment; encourages patience & self­control 3. A sense of industry through the pet’s trainability & response to the child’s basic  commands 4. A sense of identity through the pet’s serving as a companion & confidant  Early cruelty to animals is an indicator of child abuse & criminal activity later in life - Might be possible to reduce levels of crime & other antisocial behavior in young  people by encouraging nurturing traits in companion animals  Carefully introducing birds, fish & dogs into prisons & similar institutions  - Effective in rehabilitating the inmates: o Reduction in violence & antisocial behavior o Reductions in suicides & drug taking o Improved relationships between prisoners & staff  Possible nuisance concerns that can cause deleterious effects on quality of human life: - Fecal pollution­ aesthetic offense, not real risk to humans - Noise pollution­ can often be no escape o Music, slamming car doors/alarms, do­it­yourself activities in same  category of continuous barking  Injuries resulting from encounters from animals - Caused by tripping over the cat to savaged by an aggressive dog  Few dogs will attack people unless provoked - Recognizing what provokes dogs is the key o Territorial defense, fear or sexual aggression  Usually some signal is given before actual violence  - Most experienced by adolescent boys - Teeth are only means of defense  Injuries are common when dog sees itself as pack leader - All subservient to leader are at risk from bites  Real problem is failure to recognize invasion of territory or that they have assumed an  aggressive attitude  - Fail to recognize warning signals before biting  Injuries due to relative height towering over animals - Advantage in establishing rank order - If combined with a direct stare, it can add to the risks  Injuries caused by human habit of baring teeth in a smile with direct eye contact in close  face­to­face position  - Many do this when trying to get a baby to smile - Interpreted quite differently by animals - Combined with pat to the head or grabbing muzzle is even worse!  It is more likely a child will catch some infection from another small child than from its  dog or cat  Risk of zoonosis can be reduced by following good hygiene  Phobias can be maintained with the help of a psychiatrist while allergies (hair & dander)  can be controlled with a nonshedding breed or a stuffed animal - Eased stress of 2­to 7­yr. old child exposed to Israeli war  Purdue University­ Center for the Human­Animal Bond  Alzheimer’s patients often don’t eat enough  - Too active up & down the halls - Too lethargic to stay awake to eat - Hypothesis: If patients could be calmed, they would have greater food intake o Decrease need for supplements o Reduce the cost of patents’ care - Exposed to tanks of brightly colored fish o More relaxed, alert, & ate 21% more than before  Increasing support for animals in special settings - Classrooms, hospitals, nursing homes, even workplace  ~2000 surveys sent to elementary teachers in IN - 25% had animals o Mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, insects, invertebrates  Pet animals in the classroom are used as a reward to motivate students to work well  Care for animals in the classrooms provides an opportunity for students to serve as  caregivers  One of the first studies involving health & companion animal bond is the myocardial  infarction study involving cardiovascular benefits  The myocardial infarction study recorded survival rates of pet owners & non­pet owners  following MI - Controlled exercise - Significantly higher survival rate, one­year post­MI  Cardiovascular screening program in Australia  - 5700 participants - Pet owners had significantly lower systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, &  cholesterol levels than those with no pets  General Health Factors of Pet Owners: - Decrease in minor health problems for pet owners o Compared adults before & after they acquired a pet - Examined health & morale in older adults living in the community o Pet ownership & attitudes towards pets to be significant predictor  - Females had lowered stress levels when their dogs were present than compared  with the presence of a human best friend or control condition  Sexual Abuse Survivors: - Strong supportive role of pets in childhood o In some cases, the pet was the only reported supportive entity in the  survivor’s childhood - Survivors with a strong human­animal bond in childhood support o Less abusive behavior as adults o Lower anger levels  Role in Companion Animals in Therapy - Serve as a communication link   Positives of companion animals in therapy: - Sense of security during session - Quickens therapy process  Companion animals in therapy works well for: 1. Nonverbal children 2. Inhibited 3. Autistic  4. Schizophrenic 5. Withdrawn 6. OCD 7. Culturally disadvantaged  In children with ADHD: 1. Decreased agitated & aggressive behavior 2. Improved cooperation with instructors 3. Engaged students in learning 4. Improved behavioral control in regular classrooms  Marine Animals in rehabilitation: - Mentally challenged children interact with rehabilitating dolphins, sea turtles, &  fish causing: o Progress & attainment toward goals o Improved self­concept o Enjoyable recreational experiences - Significant improvements in cognitive responses when children interacted with  dolphins o Studied verbal & nonverbal responses o Greater interactions than without dolphins  Animals in patient treatment ranges from simple visitation by a pet & its owner to  purposeful inclusion in treatment plan for patient  Inclusion of animals in patient treatment causes a reduction of child’s blood pressure  during mildly stressful task if dog was present  New area of animals in patient treatment: role in chronically ill children - Serve as support, stress reduction, & coping - Source of distraction - Rhythmic motion of petting - Nonevaluative nature of the animal  Role of animals in the lives of elderly: - Serve as moderators in coming to terms with losses associated with aging o Companion animals are dependent on humans - Keeping an animal involves regular commitment & responsibility o More likely to go out for walks if they have a dog o Report fewer health problems, less trips to doctor o Shorter hospital stays - Not only physical but mental health improved - Less depression after loss of spouse - Daily activities of living not lessened if own a pet o Eating & grooming, getting up in the morning - Provide physical contact, affection, & companionship  Walking with or without a dog: - 13 elderly people participated (ages 62­82) - Used a single, friendly King Charles Spaniel female - Fitted with ECG unit & required to take two 30­minute walks outdoors in the park o Randomly assigned to walk the dog first or walk without the dog first o Rested for 20 minutes in between walks - Walking the dog provides greater health benefits (PNS) - Even greater benefits when interaction with dog at home  Companion Cats & Men with AIDS: - 60 male pet owners with AIDS - Lived in San Francisco area & had help from PAWS (Pets Are Wonderful  Support) - Completed formal questionnaire o Demographics, lifestyle, & pet ownership o  Loneliness & general health - Hypothesis: Cats would be more effective due to declining health & simpler  requirements of care - Conclusion: Cats were more compatible to lifestyle o Companionship with less effort like walks, travel, outdoors  Dog walking has potential to increase physical activity in a large proportion of the  community  1800 participants in Australia’s RESIDE project - 5­year longitudinal study of people building homes  Used questionnaire to collect self­reported physical activity & walking over a week - Dog owners had significantly more minutes walking & doing physical activity o Columbia, MO: “Walk a hound, lose a pound” program  No known cause or cure to autism  “Mirror neurons” are dysfunctional in autistic children  Autistic children play with virtual online pets to improve real world functioning - Adopts an online version of their stuffed animal from home  Autistic child must associate real stuffed animal with virtual one - Provide housing, food, care, & entertainment for their pet ANSC 2000 set 8 notecards.flashquiz


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