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Ch. 4 Methods and Design, week 4

by: Hope Good

Ch. 4 Methods and Design, week 4 PSYC 328

Hope Good
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These notes cover all of chapter four: data collection techniques and research design to get your started on your research!
Methods and Design in Behavioral Science
Dr. Weed
Class Notes
Psychology, research




Popular in Methods and Design in Behavioral Science

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hope Good on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 328 at University of South Carolina Aiken taught by Dr. Weed in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Methods and Design in Behavioral Science in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina Aiken.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Chapter 4: Data collection techniques and research designs o Variable Specification:  Dependent variable: the behavior being observed  Independent variable: presumed cause of the behavior  Constructs/factors  An attribute that can take on 2 or more values/categoriescan vary between people  Sex  Age  Treatment condition  Test grades  People and objects are NOT attributes  Must be operationally defined to be measured  Researchers must consider several alternative operational definitions and select the one they believe is most valid/reliable  Mental health  Hunger  Fear  Deception Operational definition: the definition of an abstract concept used by a researcher to measure or manipulate the concept in a research study o Validity  External Validity: degree to which the results of a study apply to individuals and realistic behaviors outside of the study  the goal is to gain knowledge about the behavior that applies to a large group of people in everyday life as well as the study.  Internal Validity: the degree to which a study provides causal information about behavior.  With increase internal validity provides causal information about a behavior but decrease internal validity it is impossible to infer true cause.  To increase, researcher’s controls for extraneous factors that can affect the observation.  Internal vs. External: more control increases internal validity but behavior may become more artificial and decrease external validity  External validity is more realistic o Reliability: the degree to which the results of a study can be replicated under similar conditions.  Types:  Do different observers see the same behavior?  Is behavior the same on different occasions?  Would you get the same result if you re-ran the same experiment?  Data Collection Techniques o Naturalistic Observation  Unobtrusively observing individuals in their natural environment  Meerkat manor o Survey/Questionnaires  Asking individuals to self-report their behaviors and attitudes  Can be written or interview style  CLOSE-ENDED: participants respond to survey questions according to the response options provided  OPEN-ENDED: participants respond to survey questions in any manner they feel is appropriate  Qualitative date is non numerical responses  Quantitative responses are numerical responses  Back depression inventory  Distress disclosure index o Systematic Observation  Observing behavior under controlled environments  Accuracy and speed of completion on a computer presented task o Archival Data  Observing behavior from pre-existing data or records  Pueblo, CO smoking ban study (2006)  Content Analysis: a specific type of archival data observation that involves analysis of what someone has said/written  In content Analysis:  A researcher is analyzing a record of what someone has said or written  No interactions take place between the research participant and researcher  Research Designs o Case Study: a research design that involves intensive study and observation of particular individuals and behaviors  can also be conducted for a group of individuals, such as an agency or institute  often uses naturalistic observation; interviews; archival data  small-n-design: an experiment conducted with one or a few participants to better understand the behavior of an individual o Correlational Study: to examine the strength and direction of relationships between dependent variables.  if a predictive relation is examined, the variable that is used to make the prediction is called the PREDICTOR VARIABLE and the variable being predicted is the OUTCOME VARIABLE.  POSITIVE relationships are variables that change together in the same direction of a scatterplot and NEGATIVE response are when variables change differently, one will increase and the other will decrease on a scatterplot.  Does not provide information on cause and effect o Experiment: examination of causal relationships between variables using an independent variable and comparing different groups and conditions.  Independent variable: manipulated and presumed to cause the behavior being studied  Treated group is the EXPERIMENTAL GROUP and non- treated group is the CONTROLLED GROUP  Control of factors that could affect the results but are not a part of the independent variable are CONFOUNDING VARIABLES o Quasi-Experiment: examination of relationship between variables through a comparison of groups of individual  SUBJECT VARIABLE is used for comparison of groups, where groups are not randomly assigned  Studies comparing age groups and genders  PRETEST-POSTTEST design: a type of research design where behavior is measured both before and after a treatment/condition is implemented  For example: research being conducted on how a treatment affects a person with depression. Would take a pretest to see what the person is like before treatment and posttest to see what they are like after treatment to compare findings


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