General Psychology Chapters 1 and 2
General Psychology Chapters 1 and 2 PSYC 1201 3C
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Vignes on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1201 3C at Fairleigh Dickinson University taught by Dr. Sheila Brodhead in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Fairleigh Dickinson University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Amanda Vignes Psychology Notes Chap. 1 & 2 Dr. B The Steps of Critical Thinking; 1. Ask be willing to wonder. 2. Define your terms make sure everything you are studying is clear. 3. Examine the evidence look at and analyze the facts. 4. Analyze assumptions and biases Make sure you understand where each subject is coming from emotionally, ethically, religiously, ect. 5. Don’t over simplify Don’t make a situation seem more simple than it is because there are a number of factors that can be effecting the subjects involved. 6. Consider other interpretations Everyone views different situations differently so everyone will interpret them in a different way. 7. Tolerate uncertainty There isn’t always an exact explanation for certain situations. Chapter One Introduction. Psychology the study of mental processes, the mind, and behavior. Derived from the Greek “psyche”. The main goal of Psychology is to describe, explain, predict, and change. Important things to remember about Psychology: Psychology IS a scientific field so it does use scientific methods. Psychology, as a field, does not rely on common sense, but instead on fact and scientific process. Psychology also studies normal AND abnormal behaviors. Side note Psychiatrists can prescribe medication because they have gone through pharmacy, Psychologists cannot. ** Scientific Methods systematically acquiring knowledge and understanding. There are plenty of philosophies on how psychology works and how to conduct research for psychology. Aristotle believed that the mind was the Amanda Vignes reason the human body functioned, Plato believed that there were three parts of the mind (intellect, emotion, and desires) that drove humans, and others believed in Bodily Humourism where the color of different bodily functions/products indicated different things about the psyche, or Phrenology which relies on the shape of the skull. The current schools of thought include: Biological focuses on the body. Learning Environment and experience. Cognitive thinking and reframing. Sociocultural culture and how it effects the mind. Basic Research Methods: Descriptive Research Methods: Archival using a database or existing data to conduct research. Naturalistic watching the subjects that you are studying, observation. Tests & Survey asking an array of questions concerning a specific topic. Usually researchers ask said questions to a wide range of people in order to create an accurate description of a specific group of people or the general public. Case study intense, indepth investigation of a single group/individuals. Correlational Research Methods Graphs. Does not imply a causeandeffect relationship. The signs in problems indicate which way the slope of each graph will be going. Positive Slope when one variable increases so will the other. Negative Slope when one variable Amanda Vignes increases, the other decreases. Misc. Research Methods CrossSectional Research studying different groups of people at the same time. Allows for a diverse research pool. Longitudinal Research studying the same group of people over a long period of time. Months, years, decades, sometimes lifetimes. Correlational Research Researching two topics and combining the results onto one graph. (Like the Nicholas Cage movies and the number of people who drowned in a pool.) The problem with this method is that it DOES NOT show true cause and effect and the researcher must conduct an experiment to validate their findings. The only way to find causeandeffect is to conduct an actual experiment. Experimental Research Investigates the relationship between two (or more) variables by changing one variable in a situation to observe the effects on the second variable. Advantages vs. Disadvantages The researcher does get to control the situation, but the situation is artificial. (When the situation is organic the results tend to be more accurate.) General Experiment Guidelines Hypothesis Make sure the hypothesis is clear and asks a specific, testable question. It MUST be specific and it MUST be testable. Control group gets nothing. No drug, nothing that would interfere with their natural state. Amanda Vignes Experimental group The group that is tweaked in order to test the hypothesis. Independent Variable Variable that is manipulated. Dependent Variable Variable that is measured. When choosing subjects make sure it is a general sample that represents the population you are studying. Operational definition Translation of a variable into specific, testable procedures. Make sure it is a significant outcome make sure the results are meaningful and relevant discoveries so that fellow researchers can be confident in the research. Standard Statistics Usually finds the Arithmetic mean. Arithmetic Mean average calculated by adding set of quantities and dividing the sum by the total number of quantities in the set. What is on the Quiz? Correlation Coefficient Reliability/Validity Early school of psychology Behaviorism, functionalism, introspection. Independent/Dependent Variable Significant test make sure it is 95% is correct (leave a 5% for error) Who founded the first psych lab? Code of Ethics Descriptive Data, Collective methods Go kill that quiz/midterm/final. (:
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