CHM 113- Week 6 Notes: Reactions in Aqueous solutions
CHM 113- Week 6 Notes: Reactions in Aqueous solutions CHM 113
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Notetaker on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 113 at Arizona State University taught by Cabirac in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General chemistry 1 in Science at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 9/21- Wednesday, September 21, 2016 3:14 PM 4.1 General properties of Aqueous Solutions Water is a: • Universal solvent, • High dielectric constant • Liquid over a wide temperaturerange • High heat capacity Water is "liquid life" • Approximately 60% of human body weight • 70% of the earth's surface • Most naturally occurring chemistry occurs in aqueous solution Solution: A homogenousmixture of two or more substances Solute-The substance dissolved in the solution,the lowest amount in the solution (solid liquid or gas) Solvent- The substance that dissolves the solute (usually water) General Properties of Aqueous Solutions Electrolyte Properties What are Electrolytes? Electrolytes dissolve in water to form ions. The ions allow the resultingsolution to conduct electricity. Example: NaCl(s) + H O (l) -> NaCl (Aq) 2 Nonelectrolytes dissolve in water but do not form ions. The resulting solution can't conduct electricity. The amount of current that flows through the solution is proportionalto the amount of ions in the solution. Gatorade electrolytes: NaCl Na 3 6 5 7 KH 2O 4 Main electrolytes in blood: Na ,K ,Cl ,HCO 3Ca 2+ When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystal and solvates them. This is called dissociation. Molecular Compounds in Water Molecular compoundstend to be nonelectrolytes. (except for acids and bases) The polar nature of the water molecule is still important in dissolving molecular compounds. A strong electrolyte dissociates completely when dissolved in water. A weak electrolyte only dissociates partially when dissolved in water. Not all ionic compounds are freely soluble in water! A precipitation chemical reaction is one which an insoluble/ partially soluble ionic compound is formed. Soluble/InsolubleIonic compounds - - Any compound with an alkali metal (Li,Na,K,Rb,Cs) or NH , paired4with the anions (NO or CH COO ) 3 3 (acetate) is water soluble. A reaction where two ionic compounds exchange cations and ions is called an Exchange (Metathesis) reaction. Or a double replacement reaction. AB+ CD -> AD + CB 3 Different Types: 1. Precipitation Reaction 2. Acid-Base NeutralizationReactions 3. Gas forming neutralization reaction Precipitation Reactions 1. Precipitation Reaction (insoluble precipitate forms) AB (aq) + CD (aq) -> AD (s) + BC (aq) a. Molecular equation a. AB (aq) + CD (aq) -> AD (s) + BC (aq) b. Complete Ionic equation a. A (aq) + B (aq) + C (aq) + D (aq) -> AD (s) + B (aq) + C (aq) + c. Net ionic equation a. Write a balanced molecular equation with proper states b. Write all strong electrolytes as dissociated c. Cross out all spectator ions NaBr (aq) + KI (aq) -> KBr (aq) + NaI (aq) Acids, Bases & Neutralization Reactions Acids + Arrhenius defined acids as substances that increase the concentrationof H ion when dissolved in water. HX (aq) -> H (aq) + X - The Bronsted-Lowrydefinition: An acid is a proton donor. A strong acid dissociates 100% in water. Example: ->H (aq) + Cl (aq) Strong acids dissociate 100%in water A weak acid paritally dissociates in water - most moleculesexist as an un-dissociated - a weak proton donor + HC 2 3 (2q) <-> H (aq) A weak electrolytebecause it partially dissociates. Bases Bases Arrhenius defined bases as substances that increase the concentrationof OH ion when dissolved in water. The bronsted-Lowry definition: A base is a proton acceptor. Strong bases are any of the Group I or II metal hydroxides: LiOH, NaOH, KOH,Mg(OH) , Ca(O2) , Sr(OH2 2 These are considered ionic, unlike acids, not molecular compounds. + All of these examplesare strong bases though not are all strong electrolytes. Weak bases are poor proton acceptors. The only weak base is NH (g). 3 + NH 3aq) + H O2(l) <-> NH + 4 I Strong electrolyte Weak electrolye
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