FSHN300 Lecture: 9/21-9/23
FSHN300 Lecture: 9/21-9/23 FSHN 300
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brie on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSHN 300 at Colorado State University taught by Eric Stanley Milholland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Food Principles and Applications in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
FSHN300 Chapter 7: Meat Protein Chemistry Amino acids Composition Functions 1. Hydration 2. Denaturation 3. Coagulation 4. Enzymatic Reactions 5. Buffering 6. Browning Sugar + Protein -- (with heat) Brown complexes Types of Meats Beef o Steers o Bulls (rarely used) o Heifers and cows o Calves Veal o Calves o 3 weeks to 3 months Lamb and mutton (sheep) Pork (pigs) Composition of Meats Structure of Meats o Water o Muscle Main source of meat Most protein in the animals is in the muscle o Connective Tissue Collagen and Elastin Collagen: Has the ability to break down Elastin: Does not break down with cooking o Adipose Fatty Tissue Cover Fat vs. Intramuscular Fat (Marbling) o Bone o Antibiotics Given to the animals to ensure health and promote growth May lead to antibiotic resistant bacteria development o Pigments Hemoglobin More exercise = More hemoglobin o Older the animal + more exercise = tougher meat Tougher meat has more flavor than tender meat Tougher meat is also cheaper Purchasing Meats Inspection o USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service o Only guarantees wholesomeness Not quality or tenderness o Inspection of meats brought in from across state lines or into the U.S. from another country Grading o USDA contracted to grade meat o Voluntary program o Quality grade Color, grain, surface texture, fat distribution o Yield grade Tenderness of Meats o Cut o Animal’s age o Heredity o Diet o Marbling o Rigor mortis Rigor Mortis: Consumption of glycogen after death (makes it more tender) Increases lactic acid which then breaks down connective tissue Slaughterhouse Meats o Dark-cutting meat o PSE Condition o Thaw rigor o Cold shortening o Green meat Aging to Increase Tenderness o Dry aging o Wet or fast aging Artificial Tenderizing o Enzymes, salts, and acids o Mechanical tenderization o Electrical stimulation 2 Major Types of Meat Cuts o Wholesale: Identifiable big chunks o Retail: Grocery store Processing Methods o Curing o Smoking o Canning o Drying Additives iClicker: Antibiotics are used in meat/ growth production because they help animals develop more muscle. A. False (Helps maintain muscle not develop/ grow more muscle) iClicker: Cuts of meat high in connective tissue… A. Are usually more flavorful than tender cuts