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by: Sondra Alba

12

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2

# GGS 101 Week 2 101

Sondra Alba
Mason

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Weather climate and cartrography
COURSE
Major World Regions
PROF.
Ward
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
2
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in GGS 101 001

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sondra Alba on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at George Mason University taught by Ward in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Major World Regions in GGS 101 001 at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
Week 2 GGS 101 1. Reflections and Reradiation a. Reflection is a process where potentially receivable insolation is sent back into pace or diffused in the troposphere. Sources of reflection include clouds, and light colored surfaces. b. Reradiation is when earth absorbs short wave energy during the day, releases it back into the atmosphere at night in the form of long wave radiation i. Land vs water – important variable 2. Temperature and Altitude a. Lapse rate- the rate of change in temperature with altitude averaging 3.5®F per 100 feet of elevation. (6.4®C per 1000 meters) b. Temperature inversion- when rapid Reradiation causes temperature to be higher above the earth’s surface that at the surface itself. i. Examples: Los Angeles, California and Santiago, Chile 3. Wind and Air Pressure a. High pressure and low pressure systems i. Rotation and Coriolis effect 1. The Coriolis effect is a deflective forces arising from the rotation of the Earth on its axis. 2. Low pressure flows counter clockwise 3. High pressure flows clockwise ii. Air Pressure 1. Normal air pressure is 14.7 pounds per inch squared and is measured by a barometer. 2. Average pressure is 29.92 inches of mercury in a barometer. 3. The Doldrums is an area of stagnation at the equator 4. The horse latitudes hold at 30® Latitude. Called horse latitudes because sails would come to a halt and they would sometimes through their horses off to relieve some weight to get a sail. iii. Mountain and Valley Breezes 1. Mountain breezes occur at night where heavy cool air from high snow areas descends into lower valley regions. 2. Valley breezes occur during the day when warm air moves up slops into mountain regions. Common in southern California a. Example: Santa Ana Winds 4. Moisture in the Atmosphere: a. Precipitation- moisture in any form, that falls from the sky to the ground b. Condensation nuclei- needed for precipitation. Can be dust, pollen, salt, pollutants. Needed so moisture can have something to collect around. c. Saturated- when the air cannot hold any more moisture. i. Types of Precipitation 1. Cyclonic or Frontal Precipitation a. Cold front: fast moving, covering an average of 600 miles per day and usually followed by a high pressure system. b. Warm front: slow moving, usually generates drawn out periods of steady light precipitations c. Usually followed by a low pressure system 2. Conventional precipitation a. Rising, heated moisture- laden air typical in a summer afternoon thunder storm. 3. Orographic precipitation a. Warm, moist air forced up a mountain where it cools and condenses at higher altitudes. b. Storm Surge- piling of water onto the coast through wind gusts. 5. Lightning a. 90% never touches the ground b. A streak can stretch over 100 miles c. Temperatures exceed 50,000®F d. Kills one in every 6 people it strikes 6. Hail a. Caused by strong updraft comets 7. El Nino – is an unusual warming of the waters off the coast of Peru. a. Causes global domino effects b. Heated water increases evaporation c. Happens every 3-7 years d. Usually followed by La Nina 8. La Nina- is an unusual cooling of the waters off the coast of Peru. 9. Climate a. A Koppen-Geirger: the system of climate classification 10.Problem defining climate regions a. Records scares, short term, often inadequate. b. Weather/climate tend to change gradually from place to place c. Always room for argument 11.Climate regions a. Influenced by latitude and altitude b. Classified by temperature and precipitation 12.Clouds a. Cumulus (low altitude) b. Cumulonimbus (low altitude) c. Stratus (low altitude) d. Cirrus (high altitude) 13.History of Cartography a. Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.E.) b. Pythagoras and Aristotle (350 B.C.E.) are known to have decided that the earth was round. c. When measuring the how big the earth is they used geometric calculations d. Maps were previously cared in either rock or wood.

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