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General Psychology Chapter 3

by: Amanda Vignes

General Psychology Chapter 3 PSYC 1201 3C

Amanda Vignes
GPA 3.7
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About this Document

These notes cover the anatomy of the brain and the major functions of the brain.
General Psychology
Dr. Sheila Brodhead
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Vignes on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1201 3C at Fairleigh Dickinson University taught by Dr. Sheila Brodhead in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Fairleigh Dickinson University.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
Vignes 1 Chapter 3 The Brain and the Nervous System Goals of the chapter: What are the basic elements of the nervous system? How does the nervous system communicate electrical and chemical messages  from one part to another? Neurons: Nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system. Physically held in place by glial cells. ** Most neurons develop in the first trimester of pregnancy.  Electrical­Chemical relationship in neurons. (Begins as electrical,  changes to chemical when the neurotransmitter is released.)  Glial Cells­ provide nourishment to neurons, insulate and repair  neurons, and support neural functioning. The ratio of Glia cell  to neuron varies depending on the region of the brain. Cortex  roughly 1:1, Thalamus 17:1.  The Structure of a Neuron: Neurons are distinctive in that they can  communicate with other cells and transmit information across  relatively long distances.     Anatomy of the Neuron and Their Functions:     Nucleus­ Contains the cell’s genetic material.      Cell Body­ Cell’s life. The support center.      Dentries­ Received messages from other cells.      Axon Hilcock­ Passes messages from the cell body to other neurons,  muscles or glands. Vignes 2     Myelin­ Covers the axon of some neurons and speeds the neural  impulses. The more Myelin the faster the impulse.      Axon Branches­ Form junctions with other cells.     Terminal Button­  Where Neurons Meet: Bridge the Gap.  Synapse: The space between two neurons where the axon of a sending  neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using  chemical messages.  Synapse is also the junction between an Axon and  Dendrite. Vignes 3  Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to  the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron. (Chemicals  messengers)  Reuptake­ the reabsorption of remaining neurotransmitters remaining at the synapse. This process essentially prevents overstimulation or  constant inhibition of receiving neurons and without it effective  communication across the synapse would no longer be possible.   How Neurons Fire: Neurons follow an all or nothing law. In a resting state  neurons have a negative electrical charge. Action potential changes  this charge from negative to positive.  ­ Action potential: An electrical nerve impulse that travels through an  axon when it is set off by a “trigger” changing the neuron from  positive to negative Vignes 4  The CNS has two kinds of tissue: Grey and White tissue. ­ Grey Matter­ Pinkish­grey color in the brain, contains the cell bodies,  dendrites, and axon terminals of neurons (Also where all of the  synapses). ­ White Matter­ Made of axons connecting different parts of grey matter  together. EXTREMELY Myelinated. The more myelin there is the  faster communication will be.   Mirror Neurons­   Mirror Neurons are specialized neurons that fire when a  person observes another individual carrying out a behavior. Ex.;  yawning. (hella important, just so ya know. )    Neurotransmitters: Neurotransmitters are responsible for the passing of  messages between your brain and your body. They tell your heart to  Vignes 5 beat, your lungs to breathe, ect. Basic (but important)  neurotransmitters include:     GABA­ Major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Abnormal levels  have been implicated in sleep and eating disorders.     Acetylcholine­ helps with muscle action, arousal, vigilance, memory and  emotion deficits help account for devastating memory problems in  people with Alzheimer’s.     Dopamine­ Movement, attention, learning, memory, emotion, pleasure,  reward, novelty. Loss of cells that produce dopamine is responsible  for the tremors associated with Parkinson’s disease.      Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)­ CTE is a progressive  degenerative disease found in those with repetitive brain injuries, usually  athletes. Associated with memory loss, confusion, impaired  judgement, executive function problems, impulse control, ect.      The Central Nervous System­ There are two parts of the nervous system­  the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system  (PNS).      CNS: Composed of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal      PNS­ Everything that branches from the spinal cord. Has two parts;  somatic­ the voluntary movements: Autonomic­ involuntary  movement.     MOTOR NEURONS (Efferent neurons): Communicate info from the  nervous system to muscles and glands (Outgoing, EXIT). Vignes 6     Sensory (Afferent) Neurons: Transmit information from the receptors to  the central nervous system (Incoming, Arrive).     Activating the Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System:     Sympathetic division­ acts to prepare the body for fight or flight.      Parasympathetic division­ acts to calm the body after an emergency has  ended.  REVIEW THE PARTS OF THE BRAIN! Quizlet­ Anatomy of the Brain­ amandaaaaaa16    The Cerebral Cortex­ Responsible for the most sophisticated information  processing.     Neuroplasticity­ changes in the brain that occur throughout life relating to  the addition of new neurons, new interconnections between neurons, and  reorganize information­processing areas. 


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