General Psychology Chapter 3
General Psychology Chapter 3 PSYC 1201 3C
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Vignes on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1201 3C at Fairleigh Dickinson University taught by Dr. Sheila Brodhead in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Fairleigh Dickinson University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Vignes 1 Chapter 3 The Brain and the Nervous System Goals of the chapter: What are the basic elements of the nervous system? How does the nervous system communicate electrical and chemical messages from one part to another? Neurons: Nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system. Physically held in place by glial cells. ** Most neurons develop in the first trimester of pregnancy. ElectricalChemical relationship in neurons. (Begins as electrical, changes to chemical when the neurotransmitter is released.) Glial Cells provide nourishment to neurons, insulate and repair neurons, and support neural functioning. The ratio of Glia cell to neuron varies depending on the region of the brain. Cortex roughly 1:1, Thalamus 17:1. The Structure of a Neuron: Neurons are distinctive in that they can communicate with other cells and transmit information across relatively long distances. Anatomy of the Neuron and Their Functions: Nucleus Contains the cell’s genetic material. Cell Body Cell’s life. The support center. Dentries Received messages from other cells. Axon Hilcock Passes messages from the cell body to other neurons, muscles or glands. Vignes 2 Myelin Covers the axon of some neurons and speeds the neural impulses. The more Myelin the faster the impulse. Axon Branches Form junctions with other cells. Terminal Button Where Neurons Meet: Bridge the Gap. Synapse: The space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages. Synapse is also the junction between an Axon and Dendrite. Vignes 3 Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron. (Chemicals messengers) Reuptake the reabsorption of remaining neurotransmitters remaining at the synapse. This process essentially prevents overstimulation or constant inhibition of receiving neurons and without it effective communication across the synapse would no longer be possible. How Neurons Fire: Neurons follow an all or nothing law. In a resting state neurons have a negative electrical charge. Action potential changes this charge from negative to positive. Action potential: An electrical nerve impulse that travels through an axon when it is set off by a “trigger” changing the neuron from positive to negative Vignes 4 The CNS has two kinds of tissue: Grey and White tissue. Grey Matter Pinkishgrey color in the brain, contains the cell bodies, dendrites, and axon terminals of neurons (Also where all of the synapses). White Matter Made of axons connecting different parts of grey matter together. EXTREMELY Myelinated. The more myelin there is the faster communication will be. Mirror Neurons Mirror Neurons are specialized neurons that fire when a person observes another individual carrying out a behavior. Ex.; yawning. (hella important, just so ya know. ) Neurotransmitters: Neurotransmitters are responsible for the passing of messages between your brain and your body. They tell your heart to Vignes 5 beat, your lungs to breathe, ect. Basic (but important) neurotransmitters include: GABA Major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Abnormal levels have been implicated in sleep and eating disorders. Acetylcholine helps with muscle action, arousal, vigilance, memory and emotion deficits help account for devastating memory problems in people with Alzheimer’s. Dopamine Movement, attention, learning, memory, emotion, pleasure, reward, novelty. Loss of cells that produce dopamine is responsible for the tremors associated with Parkinson’s disease. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) CTE is a progressive degenerative disease found in those with repetitive brain injuries, usually athletes. Associated with memory loss, confusion, impaired judgement, executive function problems, impulse control, ect. The Central Nervous System There are two parts of the nervous system the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). CNS: Composed of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal PNS Everything that branches from the spinal cord. Has two parts; somatic the voluntary movements: Autonomic involuntary movement. MOTOR NEURONS (Efferent neurons): Communicate info from the nervous system to muscles and glands (Outgoing, EXIT). Vignes 6 Sensory (Afferent) Neurons: Transmit information from the receptors to the central nervous system (Incoming, Arrive). Activating the Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System: Sympathetic division acts to prepare the body for fight or flight. Parasympathetic division acts to calm the body after an emergency has ended. REVIEW THE PARTS OF THE BRAIN! Quizlet Anatomy of the Brain amandaaaaaa16 The Cerebral Cortex Responsible for the most sophisticated information processing. Neuroplasticity changes in the brain that occur throughout life relating to the addition of new neurons, new interconnections between neurons, and reorganize informationprocessing areas.
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