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Introduction to American Politics 101 Week 4 Notes

by: Lindsey Notetaker

Introduction to American Politics 101 Week 4 Notes PSC 101

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > PSC 101 > Introduction to American Politics 101 Week 4 Notes
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These notes cover the lecture notes of political parties along with textbook notes and vocabulary words with the corresponding chapter
Intro American Politics
Class Notes
american, Politics, political parties
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 101 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Introduction to American Politics Week 4 Notes (September 19, 2016) Chapter 9: Political Parties   Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take  from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with  definitions will be the last sections! (:  Lecture Notes   Political parties are the point of contract between the citizens and government with  collective interests  America has ALWAYS been a two­ party system  o Sometimes there is a third party that ends up in an election, but they do not make  a dent or win typically   Third parties are parties that organize in order to elicit external policy  issues   This is for issues that the other two parties do not typically have a  stance on o Green Party or Tea Party are examples  o We have a winner take all system and that means that whichever party gets the  majority of the votes, gets all the seats for it  Realignment is when there’s a switch in what the people believe and go to different party  o It is basically a transition from the dominant party to a new one   There are two different formation of political parties  o Internal mobilization is when groups WITHIN the government compete for  popular support  o External mobilization is when groups OUTSIDE the government compete for  popular support   Divided government is the condition in which party control is split between the executive and legislative branch  Party polarization is a strong division between competing parties on the majority of  policy issues   Every party needs funding to help them advance, so they are always trying to gain  support and funding for them  Caucus is normally a closed meeting of political party that seek strategic methods of  choosing candidates and promoting policy   National convention is when a political party institution that selects presidential  candidates and devise party platform  Page 1 of 7 Introduction to American Politics Week 4 Notes (September 19, 2016) o This is when they choose who is going to be the “face” of the party for the  upcoming year or anything that it may be  o Committees tend to argue about what should happen  A political party machine is a strong party organization that grants it supporters political  jobs and favors in exchange for votes  o These are not very typical anymore   Party identification is when someone will vote for a party REGARDLESS of other  factors  o Voting to go with how they were raised or by group affiliation   Hispanics tend to go more toward democrats   African Americans tend to go more toward democrats   Women tend to go more toward democrats  Party activism is the process of contributing a considerable amount of time and effort  toward party ideals   Policy entrepreneur is an individual who broadens the scope of traditional party platform  with the intent to increase his or her political support  Textbook Notes  Political parties organize the mass public because as individuals they might lack the  resources and knowledge to compete with the wealthy elites and interest groups for a  voice in politic  Political parties tend to be stronger than interest groups because they can mobilize with  multiple areas as interest groups are typically narrow Political parties are more polarized than they have ever been  o Meaning that there is a much clearer line of the two parties and are stronger on  their stances  Political parties are constantly trying to expand to nonvoters to gain voters  Evidence shows that both parties tend to cater more toward the rich than the poor o This is thought to be because the rich tends to have more say and can contribute  money to the party more than the poor can The Jeffersonians (Antifederalist) were formed by internal mobilization meaning formed  within the government during the American republic    The Republican Party were formed by external mobilization meaning formed outside  the government in 1850 Page 2 of 7 Introduction to American Politics Week 4 Notes (September 19, 2016) The first role of political parties is to recruit candidates to be the face of their party for  government positions  o This means that they look good, have a good amount of money, and can deal with  the stress that will come from being in office  Each party only nominate one candidate for elections to avoid people of the same party  splitting the votes o This has to do with how the voting system in America is a winner­take­all system  so they want their party to gain the most votes  Once a party has a candidate nominated, then they have to go out and get voters to want  to vote for their candidate  National convention is where the candidates make their platform and decide what their  strategy should be  The United States spend millions of dollars on campaigns which is way more than any  other country  o On average each party raises tens of millions to go for their party  o They get donations from the 572 committees to help   Most are shadow organizations to fund their party Candidates always looking to expand their supporters   In congress people work on committees and to move up is by how long they have been  on the certain committee  Party identification is important because that is how most people vote  People who lean more toward the Democratic side outnumbers the Republican side  Group affiliation can be based race and ethnicity, gender, religion, class, age, etc  o Race and ethnicity   African Americans tend to be more Democratic (over 90% vote this way)  Cuban Americans tend to be more Republican    Mexican Americans tend to be more Democratic   Asian Americans are not clear but the 2012 election shows more toward  Democratic   o Gender   Women tend to be more Democratic   Focuses on health, education, and social services   Men tend to be more Republican   Focuses on fiscal and economic issues along with national security  o Religion  Jewish Americans tend to be more Democratic (over 90% vote this way)  Catholics have been switching to Republican side since 1970s  Protestants tend to be more Republican  Page 3 of 7 Introduction to American Politics Week 4 Notes (September 19, 2016) o Class   Upper­income Americans tend to be more Republican   Focus on cutting taxes and social spending  Lower­incomes Americans tend to be more Democratic   Focuses on increasing social spending and in some cases raising  taxes on the wealthy o Ideology  Conservatives tend to be Republican  Liberals tend to be more Democratic  o Region   Democratic region tends to be the coast, upper Midwest, and across the  northern states   Republican region  tends to be in the Mountain West, Southwest, and  South states  o Age   People who became of age to vote during certain times tend to vote the  same way because they experienced the same events   A party system has to do with the two parties that are competing in the United States for  power o First system was Federalist and Jeffersonian Republicans  Started in 1790 and went to about 1812   1812­1830 it was only the Jeffersonian Republicans who got known as  Democrats  o Second party system was Democrats and Whigs   Started in 1830 and went to about 1864  Whigs started because they were oppose of Andrew Jackson o Civil war and post civil system was the Republicans and Democrats   Started in 1864 and went to about1890s  Republicans were the northern states and Democrats were the southern  states o System of 1896­1932 are still Republicans and Democrats but different views  Republicans: low taxes, high tariffs, minimum government regulation   Democrats: maintaining the regions autonomy  o The new deal from 1932 till 1964  After great depression, the people switched to Democrats because they  blamed the Republicans for it  o Current system of today started in 1964 with Nixon  Page 4 of 7 Introduction to American Politics Week 4 Notes (September 19, 2016)  In 1995 it was the first time for the Republicans to have  the House,  Senate, and White House  There have been five party realignments  o First took place around 1790­1800 when Jeffersonian Republicans defeated the  Federalist o Second took place about 1828 when Jacksonian Democrats got control of White  House and Congress o Third took place about 1860 when the new Republican Party ran by Abraham  Lincoln won power  o Fourth took place about 1890s after slavery  o Fifth took place between 1932­1936 because it was the last time the United States  did not have a divided government  Congressional lines are drawn so each district has about the same population and  typically majority of the population fall into one party  With party polarization it has made congress less representative of the whole American  population  Third parties take votes from the two major parties A ranked choice voting system is where people vote for their top three choices and they  get a majority vote for the presidency  Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical       Political Party: organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing  their members to important government offices       Partisanship: identification with or support of a particular party or cause       Two­party System: a political system in which only two parties have a realistic  opportunity to compete effectively for control      Nomination: the process by which political parties select their candidates for election to  public office      Party Organization: the formal structure of a political party, including its leadership,  election committees, active members, and paid staff      Caucus (Political): a normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select  candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters Page 5 of 7 Introduction to American Politics Week 4 Notes (September 19, 2016)      National Convention: a national institution that nominates the party’s presidential and  vice­presidential candidates; establishes party rules, and writes and ratifies the party’s  platform      Platform: a party document, written at a national convention. That contains party  philosophy, principles, and positions on issues       Soft Money: money contributed directly to political parties and other organizations for  political activities that is not regulated by federal campaign spending laws; in 2002  federal law prohibited donations to national party committees      527 Committees: nonprofit independent groups that receive and disburse funds to  influence defeat of candidates. Named after Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code,  which defines and grants tax­exempt status to nonprofit advocacy groups        Machines: strong party organizations in the late nineteenth­and early twentieth­century  American cities; these machines were led by “bosses” who controlled party nominations  and patronage       Patronage: to resources available to higher officials, usually opportunities to make  partisan appointments to offices and to confer grants, licenses, or special favors to  supporters       Policy Entrepreneur: an individual who identifies a problem as a political issue and  brings a policy proposal into the political agenda       Majority Party: the party that holds the majority of legislative seats in either the House  or Senate      Minority Party: the party that holds a minority of legislative seats in either the House or  the Senate       Party Identification: an individual voter’s psychological ties to one party or another       Party Activists: partisans who contribute time, energy, and effort to support their party  and its candidates        Gender Gap: a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views  between women and men       Dealignment: a movement away from the major political parties; a decline in partisan  attachment       Electoral Realignment: the point in history when a new party supplants the ruling party, becoming in turn the dominant political force; in the United States, this has tended to  occur roughly every 30 years  Page 6 of7 Introduction to American Politics Week 4 Notes (September 19, 2016)      Divided Government: the condition in American government wherein the presidency is  controlled by one party while the opposing party controls one or both houses of Congress      Party Polarization: the division between the two major parties on most policy issues,  with members of each party unified around  their party’s positions with little crossover       Third Parties: parties that organize to compete against the two major American political  parties Page 7 of 7


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