Research Methods Chapter 3: Experiments
Research Methods Chapter 3: Experiments PSYC 314
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makenzie Hooper on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Chapter 3: Experiments I. Experimental designs 1. Non-Experimental Design a. Rely on scientific method for setting up with control. b. Sometimes aren’t practical c. Best way to test hypothesis outside a lab d. Low in internal validity e. High in external validity 2. Why use is? a. True experimental design is implacable b. Easier to use outside the lab 3. External Validity a. Degree to which conclusions of a study can be generalized beyond the specifics of the study Applicable to larger human population 4. Dimensions-Continuums a. Manipulation of Antecedents True experimental designs are high in this Non-experimental are low in this b. Imposition of Units How constrained you want your subject’s response to be True experiments are high in this Non-experimental vary – depends on design II. Non-Experimental Research Approaches 1. Phenomenology a. Personal experiences, not interested in external events/ behaviors b. Data collected involves our personal interactions / experiences c. No participants - only self, no manipulation of antecedents d. Attends to own events e. Limitations Hard to replicate Observations can be altered by own attention Cannot describe behavior to the general population No cause and effect statements Leads to future research Combined with other designs 2. Case Studies a. Elaborate, detailed observations of a single person or group b. Data recorded by outside observer c. Record behavior as it occurs- time period d. Variety of different procedures used - depends on study topic e. Purposes Gives us a good source of inference Develops therapeutic techniques Studies rare cases Help show exceptions Good at explaining abstract concepts f. Deviant case studies- deviant behavior g. Limitations External validity is low Hard to study someone 24/7 Can’t say cause and effect Rely on subjects to give info Rely on retrospective data – past events Details may be lost when recalling a memory Researchers may not recall everything 3. Field Studies a. Real life setting/ naturalistic b. Outside a lab c. Many data collection techniques d. Low in manipulation Naturalistic Observation (FS) a. Observes behavior as is occurs b. No manipulation c. Unobstructed measures d. Do not want to alter the environment e. High in external validity f. Can answer specific questions Limitations No cause and effect No manipulation If in a lab, unnatural influences can occur Can’t observe 24/7 Participant Observation (FS) a. Researcher becomes part of the studied group b. Get a lot of information c. No manipulation Limitations Researcher can still alter behavior Researcher has to remain objective Is it ethical to not tell participants? 4. Archival Studies a. Use already existing data for new purpose b. Use the data to study societal trends and social aspects c. Get to look at a larger population Limitations No cause and effect May have to alter new study; data collected may not have all details to the new study topic. 5. Qualitative Studies a. Interested in words and their meaning b. Not interested in numbers (Quantitative) c. Rely on self-report Limitations No cause and effect Rely on retrospective data Getting subjective responses Presence of observer can lead to biased responses Internal and external validity
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