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Week 0 Notes

by: Muni Notetaker

Week 0 Notes 121

Muni Notetaker
GPA 3.1
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The notes cover lecture 1 from Week 0
Class Notes




Popular in Immunology

Popular in Molecular Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Muni Notetaker on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 121 at University of California - Irvine taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Immunology in Molecular Biology at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Lecture 1 Saturday, September 24, 26:29 PM What is the Immune System? • Antigen enters the body and multiples. T cells identify them and summon B cells (memory cells and fighter cells). Fighter cells defeat antigen, and then memory cells memorize the antigen. Killer T cells eat the dead antigen. • Youtube Link: Why is this important? • • To protect us from various microbes that are located in the environment • Various viruses in the environment that we have to coexist with pathogens like that we are hosts and so without the immune system we would not survive. • • Without the immune system we would fail to recognize external invaders and if there are internal invaders (cancer) ○ Immune system looks for mutated internal cells • • The immune system doesn’t always protect us ○ Black plague - immune system not efficient enough to fight various viruses. • Graft rejection is as an example of the immune system becoming harmful ○ Graft from different individual is rejected by immune system such as kidney transplant ○ Allergy or chronic inflammation is another example Why is this exciting? • • Immunology is applicable to various diseases such as heart disease. Relevant to the cure of human disease • • Key for infection ○ HIV --> AIDS ○ Zika Virus ○ Antibiotics are losing their ethicacy because viruses and bacteria are becoming more resistant. So additional antibiotics need to be created and new approaches arise. • • Cancer ○ Immune system is important in regulating cells ○ Cancer therapy is devoted to immunotherapy to overcome tumors ○ Immune pathways have become the biggest focus and lead to cures for things such as melanomas. • Autoimmune disease ○ Allergy is an example of the immune system responding to the something inappropriately and it can be deadly • • Allograft: rejection: can we develop methods to prevent allograft rejection without inducing generalized "immunosuppression?" ○ Immunosuppress someone by block T cell responses • The immune system has a variety of mechanisms to approach and recognize the bacteria, fungi, virus and etc. ○ Both innate and adaptive Pathogen: • Any organism that has the potential to cause disease to the host Microorganisms or parasite Study Soup Notes Page 1 • ○ Microorganisms or parasite  Bacteria  Virus  Fungi  Protozoa • Opportunistic Pathogens: ○ Normally can be exposed to them as healthy individuals, but a weakened or compromised immune system individual is susceptible to them  Immune suppressed patients for example  Genetic disease weakens immune system  Damaged immune system by infection such as HIV by damaged C4+ helper T Cells ○ Develop disease as a result • Commensal Species: ○ Microorganisms that are a part of our gut flora ○ Symbiotic which means they are good for us and take up space to prevent pathogens from invading us • Most pathogens don't kill the host ○ Killing the host results in no propagation ○ Shifting from one environment to another  Influenza virus the cross genome between people and chicken flu that results in recombinant virus  These pathogens can be extremely deadly but normal pathogens do not kill the host because they need it to propagate ○ Immune system has coevolved to beat viruses that have coevolved to get past the immune system Terminology • Adaptive vs Innate Immunity ○ Adaptive Immunity: acquired and depends on B and T cells which has antigen receptors that have memory  Have seen an antigen and as a result if there is a re-exposure there is a rapid response  Flu shots, train the immune system to recognize the influenza virus ○ Innate Immunity: directed against patterned associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are certain components of pathogens ,microbes that are recognized as foreign  Cell wall of bacteria for example provoke innate response  Microbes have different patterns □ Lipopolysaccharides for example are only found in bacteria  It's not specific so no memory is formed  Rapid response • Antigen ○ Antibody generator and induces adaptive immunity response • Humoral Adaptive vs Cellular Adaptive Immunity: ○ Humoral Adaptive Response: parts of the response that are in the blood or serum.  Antibodies that are produced by B cells ○ Cellular Adaptive Responses:  Cytotoxic T cells • Leukocyte ○ White blood cells ○ Lymphocyte:  T cells, B cells and also Natural Killer (NK cells which are a part of the innate immunity) • Antibody ○ Molecules release by certain B cells into plasma and other body fluids ○ Specific to antigens and have the ability to recognize particular antigens ○ Bring vector mechanism  Phagocytic cell that recognizes bacteria  Complement cascade  Recruit other immune cells • Plasma ○ The liquid component of the blood ○ Lymph: Fluid that leaks out of the blood vessels into tissues and mixes with extracellular fluids ○ Plasma is obtained by removal of cells from blood using centrifuge without clotting (add heparin) • Serum ○ Liquid component of the blood when clotting occurs before separation of the cells • Innate Immunity Nonspecific, but selective for non-self Study Soup Notes Page 2 ○ Nonspecific, but selective for non-self ○ Anatomic barriers such as skin to prevent infections ○ Physiological barriers such as pH in stomach ○ Polypeptide mediators such as lysozyme in saliva and tears which break down bacterial walls and which are anti-bacterial peptides that are in cells within GI tract and epithelial cell surfaces defensins ○ Phagocytosis that leads to internalization of pathogens and results in inflammation and fighting off infection ○ Microbiome which is the normal flora inside the body competes for resources to protect body from pathogens ○ Innate response cross talks with adaptive response through secretion of cytokines or chemokines that can impact both innate and adaptive responses. Study Soup Notes Page 3


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