Week 3 NeuroPsychology Notes (Development of NS + Parts, Meninges, CSF)
Week 3 NeuroPsychology Notes (Development of NS + Parts, Meninges, CSF) 01:830:310
Popular in Neuropsychology
Popular in Psychology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rahma Mbarki on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:310 at Rutgers University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Neuropsychology in Psychology at Rutgers University.
Reviews for Week 3 NeuroPsychology Notes (Development of NS + Parts, Meninges, CSF)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/24/16
Types of Cells in Nervous System Basic: 1. Neurons a. Exclusive to nervous system, many in number (100 billion) b. Information processing/information transmission i. Is electrical, and between cells is chemical 2. Glial Cells a. Microglia (small) i. Cleanup and immune function ii. Take out the trash, may remove dead myelin b. Macroglia i. Oligodendrocytes → Makes Myelin Sheath 1. Provides support and insulation ii. Schwann cells → make Myelin found in CNS, made in PNS iii. Astrocytes 1. Nutrients, many of them iv. Ependymal cells 3. Myelin Sheath a. Action potential fired, information travels faster through axons that have Myelin Sheaths b. Covers the axon, combines with Oligodendrocytes in CNS c. Schwann cells form together to make Myelin in PNS With Myelin Sheath: 120 m/s Without Myelin Sheath: 30 m/s ● More Glial cells than neurons ● Glial cells may have role in information transmission d. White Matter vs. Gray Matter e. White due to Myelin, mostly axons (parts of neurons travelling somewhere) i. In brain white matter on the inside f. Gray Matter, mostly cell bodies 4. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) → Myelin is broken down in nervous system (demyelination) a. Proximal Cause → Immune system attacks Oligodendrocytes b. In some cases, axon breaks i. Body attacking your own body because it’s a genetic susceptibility ii. Requires some environmental trigger iii. Only CNS (brain and spinal cord) c. Symptoms: i. Sensory ii. Motor iii. Cognitive iv. Emotional d. Incidence: i. 1 in 2000 in U.S. ii. Latitude or ethnicity 1. Old theory: People at higher latitudes get more MS 2. Ethnicity: genetic susceptibility, more likely to trigger MS e. Onset, diagnosis, progression i. Commonly 2040 ii. More women iii. Various forms of progression attacks, remissions 1. 4 types of progression a. Relapsing, remitting (66%80%) i. Gets better, but more attacks → loss of function b. Secondary progressive MS i. Starts like relapsing/remitting but goes up, get steadily worse c. Primary progressive i. Never have attacks, just get worse and worse d. Progressive relapsing i. Get worse, have attack, better → worse 2. Attacks: symptoms in much worse form 5. Drugs try to keep you stable and prevents you from having attacks a. Doesn’t cure, just keeps you from progressing Basic Processes 1. Neurogenesis and migration a. Neurons get made and travel in waves 2. Synaptogenesis a. Connection between neurons → synapse b. Each neuron has 10,000 synapses 3. Myelination a. Connections formed, myelin comes after neuron travels to where it needs to go 4. Synaptic pruning a. Necessary because one needs to have efficient routes b. Makes information transmission more efficient Three germ layers 1. Ectoderm a. Nervous tissue and epidermis 2. Mesoderm 3. Entoderm ● Genetic origins ● No sulci and gyri (much less brain tissue) ● Neurons not migrating → surface isn’t expanded in cerebral hemisphere ○ Less functioning brain tissue ■ Intellectually impaired children ● Head circumference of baby always measured ○ Easy check to see if brain is developing General causes ● chromosomal ● malnutrition of mother ● hypothyroidism of mother ● infections ● genes ● zika virus ○ due to this, zika is being highly investigated Rubella ● associated with microcephaly ● may have neurological effects ○ e.g: blindness, deafness Which embryonic layer develops into nervous system? Ectoderm → nervous system, parts of skin, brain Mesoderm → bones, muscles, the heart and circulatory system, internal sex organs Endoderm → gut, linings of digestive and respiratory tracts, parts of the urinary system, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, thyroid gland, parathyroid, thymus What is the defect when the frontal neuropore doesn’t close? Anencephaly Pons → bunch of fibers that looks like bridge ● crosspoint for many tracts ● information coming across it from hemispheres to cerebellum Cerebellum → little brain ● contains many neurons ● in charge of various functions ○ higher level functions than just balance Midbrain → lateral from pons ● eye movement ● coordination of some reflexes Diencephalon ● Thymus → relay station ○ processes information going to and from the brain In any kind of vertebrate, a brain has spinal cord, hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain ● Mammals have further development ● Midbrain doesn’t do much in mammalian brain Diencephalon may or may not be included into the brain stem CNS encased in bone dura mater (hard mother) Pia mater → follows every gyrus and sulcus, every curve every valley every hill Arachnoid → looks like a spider web Falx cerebri → divides 2 hemispheres Tentorium cerebelli like a tent beneath it Dura 2 layers Venous cavities in dura ● bring nonoxygenated blood ● arteries → oxygenated blood Arachnoid → much thinner than dura ● treelike things called arachnoid villi ○ stick out into venous cavities ○ overlies subarachnoid cavity ■ remains a cavity partly because it’s kept open ● through this space ○ blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid ■ cerebrospinal fluid is circulated around the cavity Can get various brain bleeds in this area ● Epidural bleeds ○ between epidural folds/layers ○ common ● Subdural bleeds ○ between dura and arachnoid ○ not very common ● Subarachnoid bleeds ○ most common 4 Ventricles in which CSF flows through ● Lateral ● Third ● Cerebral aqueduct → connecting 3rd to 4th ● Fourth → between pons and cerebellum ventricle 3 → diencephalon (sits on top of thalamus) Holes (foramen) provide openings through which things travel 450 mL cerebrospinal fluid everyday (about a pint) 3x as much as ventricular system can hold (only about 150 mL) gets produced, flows around subarachnoid space ● then goes out through subarachnoid villi (sticking out of venous cavities) ● 3 sets of circulation ○ faster circulation when you fall asleep (washes your brain) We have CSF because it floats the brain Water buffer, serves as protection against immediate brain trauma ● brain is somewhat heavy (in pounds range) ● underneath it (at the bottom) there’s a lot of blood vessels ● blood vessels would be crushed if CSF wasn’t there 1ST AND 2ND VENTRICLE ARE ALSO CALLED THE LATERAL VENTRICLES Mirrored system ● if you have artery on one side there’ll be one on the other ● 4 supply arteries (2 pairs) Carotids bring blood (anterior circulation) vertebral arteries (posterior circulation) Basilar artery → one of the few that is not paired Internal Carotid → brings blood middle cerebral artery (MCA) → first thing that comes off