New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 3 NeuroPsychology Notes (Development of NS + Parts, Meninges, CSF)

by: Rahma Mbarki

Week 3 NeuroPsychology Notes (Development of NS + Parts, Meninges, CSF) 01:830:310

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Psychology > 01:830:310 > Week 3 NeuroPsychology Notes Development of NS Parts Meninges CSF
Rahma Mbarki

GPA 3.765

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what will eventually be on the first exam.
Class Notes
neuropsychology, Psychology, neuroscience, neurobiology, #notes #physiologicalpsychology #psychology #study #help #neurons #glia #cells
25 ?




Popular in Neuropsychology

Popular in Psychology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rahma Mbarki on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:310 at Rutgers University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Neuropsychology in Psychology at Rutgers University.

Similar to 01:830:310 at Rutgers


Reviews for Week 3 NeuroPsychology Notes (Development of NS + Parts, Meninges, CSF)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/24/16
Types of Cells in Nervous System  Basic:  1. Neurons  a. Exclusive to nervous system, many in number (100 billion)  b. Information processing/information transmission  i. Is electrical, and between cells is chemical  2. Glial Cells  a. Microglia (small)  i. Cleanup and immune function  ii. Take out the trash, may remove dead myelin  b. Macroglia  i. Oligodendrocytes → Makes Myelin Sheath  1. Provides support and insulation  ii. Schwann cells → make Myelin found in CNS, made in PNS  iii. Astrocytes  1. Nutrients, many of them  iv. Ependymal cells  3. Myelin Sheath  a. Action potential fired, information travels faster through axons that have Myelin  Sheaths  b. Covers the axon, combines with Oligodendrocytes in CNS  c. Schwann cells form together to make Myelin in PNS  With Myelin Sheath: 120 m/s  Without Myelin Sheath: 30 m/s  ● More Glial cells than neurons  ● Glial cells may have role in information transmission    d. White Matter vs. Gray Matter  e. White due to Myelin, mostly axons (parts of neurons travelling somewhere)  i. In brain white matter on the inside  f. Gray Matter, mostly cell bodies  4. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) → Myelin is broken down in nervous system (demyelination)  a. Proximal Cause → Immune system attacks Oligodendrocytes   b. In some cases, axon breaks   i. Body attacking your own body because it’s a genetic susceptibility   ii. Requires some environmental trigger  iii. Only CNS (brain and spinal cord)  c. Symptoms:  i. Sensory  ii. Motor  iii. Cognitive  iv. Emotional  d. Incidence:  i. 1 in 2000 in U.S.  ii. Latitude or ethnicity  1. Old theory: People at higher latitudes get more MS  2. Ethnicity: genetic susceptibility, more likely to trigger MS  e. Onset, diagnosis, progression  i. Commonly 20­40  ii. More women  iii. Various forms of progression ­ attacks, remissions  1. 4 types of progression  a. Relapsing, remitting (66%­80%)  i. Gets better, but more attacks → loss of function  b. Secondary progressive MS  i. Starts like relapsing/remitting but goes up, get  steadily worse  c. Primary progressive  i. Never have attacks, just get worse and worse  d. Progressive relapsing  i. Get worse, have attack, better → worse  2. Attacks: symptoms in much worse form  5. Drugs try to keep you stable and prevents you from having attacks  a. Doesn’t cure, just keeps you from progressing    Basic Processes  1. Neurogenesis and migration  a. Neurons get made and travel in waves  2. Synaptogenesis  a. Connection between neurons → synapse  b. Each neuron has 10,000 synapses  3. Myelination  a. Connections formed, myelin comes after neuron travels to where it needs to go  4. Synaptic pruning  a. Necessary because one needs to have efficient routes  b. Makes information transmission more efficient  Three germ layers  1. Ectoderm  a. Nervous tissue and epidermis   2. Mesoderm  3. Entoderm      ● Genetic origins  ● No sulci and gyri (much less brain tissue)  ● Neurons not migrating → surface isn’t expanded in cerebral hemisphere  ○ Less functioning brain tissue  ■ Intellectually impaired children    ● Head circumference of baby always measured  ○ Easy check to see if brain is developing  General causes  ● chromosomal   ● malnutrition of mother  ● hypothyroidism of mother  ● infections  ● genes  ● zika virus  ○ due to this, zika is being highly investigated  Rubella  ● associated with microcephaly  ● may have neurological effects  ○ e.g: blindness, deafness    Which embryonic layer develops into nervous system?  Ectoderm → nervous system, parts of skin, brain  Mesoderm → bones, muscles, the heart and circulatory system, internal sex  organs  Endoderm → gut, linings of digestive and respiratory tracts, parts of the urinary  system, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, thyroid gland, parathyroid, thymus    What is the defect when the frontal neuropore doesn’t close?  Anencephaly     Pons → bunch of fibers that looks like bridge  ● crosspoint for many tracts  ● information coming across it from hemispheres to cerebellum    Cerebellum → little brain  ● contains many neurons  ● in charge of various functions  ○ higher level functions than just balance    Midbrain → lateral from pons  ● eye movement  ● coordination of some reflexes    Diencephalon  ● Thymus → relay station  ○ processes information going to and from the brain     In any kind of vertebrate, a brain has spinal cord, hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain  ● Mammals have further development  ● Midbrain doesn’t do much in mammalian brain    Diencephalon may or may not be included into the brain stem    CNS encased in bone    dura mater (hard mother)    Pia mater → follows every gyrus and sulcus, every curve every valley every hill    Arachnoid → looks like a spider web    Falx cerebri → divides 2 hemispheres  Tentorium cerebelli like a tent beneath it    Dura 2 layers   Venous cavities in dura  ● bring non­oxygenated blood  ● arteries → oxygenated blood    Arachnoid → much thinner than dura  ● tree­like things called arachnoid villi  ○ stick out into venous cavities  ○ overlies subarachnoid cavity  ■ remains a cavity partly because it’s kept open  ● through this space  ○ blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid  ■ cerebrospinal fluid is circulated around the cavity    Can get various brain bleeds in this area  ● Epidural bleeds  ○ between epidural folds/layers  ○ common  ● Subdural bleeds  ○ between dura and arachnoid  ○ not very common  ● Subarachnoid bleeds  ○ most common    4 Ventricles in which CSF flows through  ● Lateral  ● Third  ● Cerebral aqueduct → connecting 3rd to 4th  ● Fourth → between pons and cerebellum    ventricle 3 → diencephalon (sits on top of thalamus)    Holes (foramen) provide openings through which things travel     450 mL cerebrospinal fluid everyday (about a pint)  3x as much as ventricular system can hold (only about 150 mL)  gets produced, flows around subarachnoid space  ● then goes out through subarachnoid villi (sticking out of venous cavities)  ● 3 sets of circulation  ○ faster circulation when you fall asleep (washes your brain)    We have CSF because it floats the brain  Water buffer, serves as protection against immediate brain trauma   ● brain is somewhat heavy (in pounds range)  ● underneath it (at the bottom) there’s a lot of blood vessels  ● blood vessels would be crushed if CSF wasn’t there    1ST AND 2ND VENTRICLE ARE ALSO CALLED THE LATERAL VENTRICLES    Mirrored system  ● if you have artery on one side there’ll be one on the other  ● 4 supply arteries (2 pairs)  Carotids bring blood (anterior circulation) vertebral arteries (posterior circulation)    Basilar artery → one of the few that is not paired  Internal Carotid → brings blood  middle cerebral artery (MCA) → first thing that comes off   


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.