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Exam Notes 2 part 1 (chapt 35 & 36)

by: jethom25 Notetaker

Exam Notes 2 part 1 (chapt 35 & 36) 1543

Marketplace > University of Louisville > Biology > 1543 > Exam Notes 2 part 1 chapt 35 36
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Here are 10 pages of questions & answers for chapter 35 & 36!
James Alexander
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in DIVERSITY OF LIFE - S (Lecture)

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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by jethom25 Notetaker on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1543 at University of Louisville taught by James Alexander in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see DIVERSITY OF LIFE - S (Lecture) in Biology at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
Page 1    Chapter 35 & 36 1.) Name the 3 basic types of organs PLANTS have  Roots  Stems  Leaves 2.) Plants have to obtain resources from 2 different environments  Soil – provides water and minerals  Air ­  the atmosphere is the main source of CO2   d light energy. 3.) Name the two organ systems that plants have evolved (stems and leaves)  Roots system   Aerial shoot system 4.) True/False Plants are unlike most animals in fact that plants are typically modular. 5.) Plants are made of many copies of small number of units, that includes a) Leaves b) stems      c) roots       d) flowers     e) all of the above 6.) Many plants consist of many different genetically identical individuals due to modularity  and the fact plants can reproduce asexually, they are a) Colonial      b) clonal   c) both colonial & clonal 7.) Most animals are  a) monetary individuals   b) solitary individuals     c) unitary individuals  Page 2 8.) What’s the difference between plants and animals regarding growth and development? Plants are not limited to an embryonic or juvenile period, but developmental processes  occur throughout the life of the plants. 9.) True/False. At any time, a typical plant consists of embryonic organs, non­developing  organs, immature organs *a typical plant consists of embryonic organs, developing organs, and mature  organs 10.) Roots – anchor the plant in the soil. Also absorb minerals and water from the  ground, and store food.  11.) True/False.  Monocots generally have taproot systems. *Monocots generally have fibrous root systems 12.) Fibrous roots – are relatively shallow and the dense mat of roots increases the  plant’s exposure to soil water and minerals in the uppermost section of soil, and the roots  strongly anchor the plants to ground.  13.) The high surface area of fibrous roots allows these plants to a) Breath      b) grow extra leaves    c) rapidly take up water from rainfall   d) slow down  intake from rainfall 14.) True/False   Fibrous roots do not store as much material as tap roots. 15.) True/ False.  Many eudicots have a taproot system that consists of one large  vertical root (the taproot) that typically has smaller lateral roots branching off it. Page 3 16.)  The taproot – arises from the radicle, anchors the plant soil, but it also stores food to support the production of flowers and fruits later on during the reproductive season 17.) Root hairs – extension of individual epidermal cells 18.) True/False: most of the absorption of water and minerals in both root systems  occurs near the root tips, where vast numbers of tiny root hairs greatly increase the  surface area. 19.) True/False: Root hairs increase the surface area in root systems 20.) True/False: Water and dissolved mineral salts from the soil first enters the plant  through the epidermis of chloroplast *They first enter the plant though the epidermis of roots      21.)  Plants typically have a ________ concentration of solutes in their epidermis of roots  than the ________, so the water moves in by _________. (higher, soil, osmosis) 22.) What’s the passage of water after the water moves in by osmosis? a) Crosses the root cortex < passes into the stele<flows up the xylem vessels to  the shoot system b.) flows up xylem vessel to the shoot system<crosses root cortex<passes into the  stele c.) crosses the root cortex<dies d.) none of the above 23.) Water and ______ substances from the ____ diffuse into the _________ walls of  the epidermal cells and passes freely into the __________                           Dissolved, soil, hydrophilic, root cortex 24.) True/False: As water and minerals move through the root, root cells in the cortex  selectively extract essential minerals from the dilute soil solution and concentrate them  via facilitated transport. *dilute soil solution and concentrate the via active transport Page 4 25.) Most plants form partnerships with ______ fungi for absorbing water and  minerals from soil. Symbiotic 26.) True/False: Infected roots from mycorrhizae 27.) Mycorrhizae – symbiotic structures consisting of the plant’s roots and fungal  hyphae in close contact.  28.) Mycorrhizae creates an enormous ________ for absorption                                   Surface area  29.) True/False: Hyphae absorb water and selected minerals, transferring much of the  minerals to the host plant. 30.) Aerial Shoots consists of 3 things  Stems  Leaves  Flowers 31.) A stem consists of an alternating arrangement of ______ and _________. Nodes and internodes 32.) Nodes ­  point at which leaves are attached 33.) Internodes – the stem segments between leaf nodes 34.) Axillary Bud – the angle formed by each leaf and the steam  35.) True/False: axillary bud can be stimulated to form olive branch *can be stimulated to form a vegetative branch 36.) The growth of a young shoot is usually concentrated by its a.) Blade and stem b.) Leaf and tip c.) Tip or end 37.)  Terminal Bud – composed of developing leave and compact series of nodes and internodes 38.) The terminal bud is partly responsible for _______ the growth of ________ by _______. Inhibiting, axillary bud, apical dominance 39.) Apical dominance – causes the plant to grow taller, instead of wide, which increases the  plant’s exposure to light, especially in dense forest. Page 5 40.) In the absence of terminal buds (for example if you __________,) the _______  are no longer inhibited and they each produce a ___________ with its own terminal bud,  leaves, and axillary buds. Clip it, axillary buds, vegetative branch 41.) True/False: Pruning many plants typically makes them bushier 42.) Flowers of eudicots have flower plants that are _________                             Multiples of 4 or 5 43.) Monocots flower parts are in multiples of ____. 3 44.) Monocot pollen grains have the primitive trait of _________ (a single pore or  _____ to the outside.)                                        One opening, furrow 45.) Eudicot pollen have ______ (pores or furrows.) Three opening  46.) Vascular bundles, especially in the ____, are arranged in a ____, which is in ____. Stems, ring, eudicots 47.) Vascular bundles in ______ are scattered or ________ in the cross section of the  stem. Monocots, complexly arranged 48.) Some modified stem types are  Stolons  Rhizomes   Tubers  Leaves 49.) Stolons – runner or above ground horizontal stems 50.) Rhizomes – horizontal underground stems 51.) Tubers –  end of rhizomes  52.) Leaves – main photosynthetic organs of most plants 53.) Eudicots leaves consists of a flattened ____ and a ______.                       Blade and petiole  Page 6 54.) Petiole – the stalk that attaches the leaf to a stem node 55.) True/False: Monocots typically have 2 petioles. *Monocots typically have no petioles  56.) What’s the reason you can cut your grass without killing it?   Base of the leaf forms a sheath the envelops the stems; the base of the sheath has  a meristematic tissue that elongates the blade from the bottom. 57.) Most monocots have _______ that run the length of the blade. Parallel major vein 58.) Eudicot leaves have a ______ of major veins Netlike network 59.) Plant taxonomist use these 3 things to help identify and classify plants  Leaf shape  Spatial arrangement of leaves  Venation (vein pattern) 60.) Leaves can be modified for many functions like these 4 things  Tendrils (attachment)  Spines (defense against herbivores)  Water storage  Brightly colored leaves (that aren’t a part of flower) to attract pollinators 61.) True/False: modified leaves form the parts of the flower. 62.) Bulbs – the bases of leaves  63.) What’s an example of bulbs? a.) Cheese b.) Light bulb c.) onion 64.) Plant cells are composed of 3 basic cell types  Parenchyma  Collenchyma  Sclerenchyma 65.) Mature parenchyma cells have ____________ that are generally ____ and  flexible. Most parenchyma lack __________. Page 7 Primary walls, thin, secondary walls 66.) True/False: Parenchyma cells can elongate over time. 67.) Most parenchyma are the least _________, but there are some exceptions. The  highly specialized ________ member are parenchyma. Specialized, sieve­tube 68.) True/False: Parenchyma cells are living typically when functional 69.) Parenchyma cells can perform these 3 things  Most metabolic functions of the plant  Synthesizing   Storing various organic products 70.) Parenchyma cells are the most __________ plant cell type metabolically active  71.) Photosynthesis occurs within the ______ of parenchyma cells in the ____. Some  parenchyma cells in the stems and ____ have colorless ____ that store starch. Chloroplasts, leaf, roots, plastids 72.) True/False: the fleshy tissue of most fruit is composed of collenchyma cells *composed of parenchyma cells 73.) Developing plant cells of all types are __________ before ______ in structure and function. Parenchyma cells, specializing 74.) True/False: Mature, unspecialized parenchyma cells don’t generally undergo cell  division, but many can be induced to dedifferentiate and undergo mitosis 75.) An example of differentiating into other cell types under special conditions in  parenchyma cells is a.) Supporting & living b.) Repair and replacement of organs after injury of plant c.) Make things thicker 76.) True/False: Collenchyma cells have thicker primary walls than parenchyma cells  that are unevenly thickened 77.) True/False: Collenchyma cells lack secondary walls 78.) Collenchyma cells are grouped into ________ to help ______ young parts of the  plant ____,  Strands or cylinders, support, shoot Page 8 79.) Young stems and leaf ______ have a ______ of collenchyma just below their  surface, which provide support without restraining _____.                                  Petioles, cylinder, growth 80.) True/False: collenchyma cells are dead when functionally mature, and are  somewhat flexible and can elongate as the organ they are in Collenchyma cells are living when functionally mature 81.) Sclerenchyma cells also function as _______ elements of plant with thick  _________ strengthened by _______. Supporting, secondary walls, lignin 82.) Sclerenchyma cells are much more _____ than collenchyma cells and cannot  _____ as the organ they are in elongates. Rigid, elongate  83.) What’s the reason sclerenchyma cells can’t elongate? Sclerenchyma cells typically are dead ay functional maturity. They produce their rigid secondary cell wall before the protoplast dies. 89.) In part of plant that are still elongating, the secondary walls are deposited in a ____ or ____  pattern, enabling the cell wall to ____ like a spring as the cell grows. Spiral, ring, stretch  90.) List the 4 sclerenchyma cells  Vessel elements in the xylem  Tracheids in the xylem  Fibers  Sclereids 91.) Fibers ­  long, slander, and tapered, and usually occur in groups. Used for making  roper etc. Page 9 92.) Sclereids – shorter than fibers and irregular in shape. The hard shells of nuts and  seed coats, and gritty texture in pears is due to Sclereids. 93.) Plant organs are composed of 3 types  Dermal  Vascular  Ground tissue 94.) Dermal tissue (epidermis) – composed of a single layer of tightly packed  parenchyma cells that cover and protect the plant 95.) Cuticles – epidermis of leaves and most stems secretes a waxy coating, help retain water in the aerial part of plants 96.) Protoderm – meristematic tissue that produces the epidermis 97.) Vascular Tissue – involved in the transport of materials between the roots and  shoots. 98.) Procambium – produces the primary vascular tissues 99.) Ground tissue –  typically parenchyma cells, ground tissues are neither vascular or dermal, divided into pith and cortex in dicot stems 100.) Pith – tissues that are internal to vascular tissues 101.) Cortex – tissues external to the vascular tissues 102.) Functions of ground tissue include   Photosynthesis   Storage  Support 103.) Manu of the parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells in ground tissues  are produced by the ______________. Ground meristem  104.) Xylem – conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots 105.) The water conducting elements of xylem, the ______ and ________, are  elongated cells that are ___________.                                             Tracheids, vessels elements, dead at functional maturity  106.) The thickened cell walls in xylem for a ______ conduit through which  fluids flow Nonliving 107.) True/False: both tracheids and vessel elements have secondary walls interrupted  by pits 108.) Pits – thinner regions where only primary walls are present 109.) Tracheids – long, thin cells with tapered ends, involved in support and transport. Page 10 110.) Vessel elements – generally wider, shorter, thinner walled, and less tapered.  Aligned end to end, forming pipe­like structure called xylem vessels


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