×

### Let's log you in.

or

Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!

×

or

by: KhloNotes

4

0

3

# Notes for week 4 Psych 2110

KhloNotes
UA

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

×
Unlock Preview

Notes for Chapter Four of PSY 211
COURSE
PROF.
Andre Souza
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
3
WORDS
CONCEPTS
Psychology, hypothesis
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by KhloNotes on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2110 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Elem Statistics Business in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

×

## Reviews for Notes for week 4

×

×

### What is Karma?

#### You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/24/16
Key:​ ​Bold/Italic = ​important information, ​Highlighted ​= vital for test      From 211 Elementary Statistical Methods (Psychology) ; Professor Souza    Ideas Stressed/Re­stressed in Chapter Four:  ­ Statistics =​ random variables   ­ Inferential Statistics =​ procedures for drawing conclusion based on the scores collected  in a research study but going beyond them; creates an educated guess for studies where it  is impossible to question the entire population    ­ Memorize the Standard Distribution Variance Formula (Depicted below)      Intro to Hypothesis Test   A sample statistic is the best option for making an educated guess      Summary of the five steps of the​ hypothesis­testing procedure:  1. Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations.  2. Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution.  3. Determine the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null  hypothesis should be rejected.  4. Determine the​ sample's score on the comparison distribution.  5. Decide whether to reject the null hypothesis.    Ex: How conservative is Alabama?   ­ Five students ask a sample of fifty people with a scale (1­10)  ­ Thus, the head researcher has five guesses to average together = Central Limit Theorem     Central Limit Theorem  ­ Given any population, the means of random samples together will converge to a normal  distribution (mean of sample distribution & population are equal)   ­ Standard Distribution Variance (Standard Error of the Mean)    Formula:     σ      √ n   ­ Standard Error =​ How much the sample mean would vary if we took several samples at  the same size from the same sample  ­ More people = more precision     Real World Application   1. Usually just grab one sample  2. Take the z­score for this sample (distance from the mean)   Key:​ ​Bold/Italic = ​important information, ​Highlighted ​= vital for test     Formula: z =  x − M     √nσ       or z =   x̄ − M   SD   Hypothesis Testing Cont.   ­ Objective = ​check whether a set of data agrees with a certain prediction   ­ Prediction = hypothesis → statement about a population, a guess that a parameter  takes a particular numerical value or falls within a particular interval, systematic  way to test claims or ideas about a population   ­ A significance test uses data to summarize the evidence about a hypothesis (comparing  sample statistics or point estimates of parameters) to the values predicted by the  hypothesis  Ex:​ Are men paid more for the same job?   Answer: ▯women < ▯men = if that #10, then ▯women must be less than 10    * if you see x̄women < x̄ men = sample mean (this is purposely the wrong answer, look for the ▯  symbol which is the correct form of the problem)   Objective: ​To determine the likelihood that a sample statistic would be selected if the          hypothesis regarding the population parameter were true     Four Basic Steps (look in the book for more to review)  ­ State the hypothesis  ­ Set a criteria for decision (basically choose a α­level) ​*Has to be done before  observations   ­ Compute the test statistic (collect data)  ­ Compare and make a decision   Ex:    1. Fabio is not gay.   2. How many gay bars he goes to → criteria = 3 bars   3. Stalk him to collect data  4. He goes to 4 → my hypothesis is wrong   Explanation:   Every hypothesis test has two hypothesis   ●  Null ­ H​  →0​tatement about value of a population parameter  ● Alternative ­ H​  or H​ → statement that the population parameter falls into an  1​ a ​  ​ alternative range of values than those stated in null  *Null usually states no effect       Key:​ ​Bold/Italic = ​important information, ​Highlighted ​= vital for test     Good v Bad   ● A good hypothesis is one that can be rejected or falsified   *the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence   **null = crucial role → we can not prove something to be true, but we can prove  it to be false → fail to reject it/rejection   Ex: ​You get a call and a girl says pregnant!   Null Hypothesis: ​Karen is n ​ ot​ pregnant   How to Test: ​Pregnancy Test   Two Outcomes: K ​ aren is, Karen isn’t     Pregnancy Test   Reality                 Not Preg                                             Preg   +  False +  Correct   ­  Correct   False ­    2 possible errors of null hypothesis:   ● Type 1 = ​We can reject the null (​H​ ) when t0 ​null (​H​ ) is true (0 ​se  positive)   ● Type 2 =​ Failure to reject the  null (​H​ ) when0 ​e null (​H​ ) is false0 ​alse  negative) *preventable with more research    One ­ Tailed v. Two Tailed Test   ­ Alternate ways of computing the statistical significance of a test statistic     One ­ Tailed:   Only interested in one side of test, i.e.: Are girls are  smarter than boys? You pay attention to the gender  falling in the five percent zone.          Two ­ Tailed:   Interested in both sides of the spectrum, i.e.: Does  drinking lower your IQ? You pay attention to both  sides.

×

×

### BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

×

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

## Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

#### "There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

#### "I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

#### "I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

#### "It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!
×

### Refund Policy

#### STUDYSOUP CANCELLATION POLICY

All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email support@studysoup.com

#### STUDYSOUP REFUND POLICY

StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here: support@studysoup.com

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to support@studysoup.com