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PSY 321 Chapter 6 & 7

by: Stephanie

PSY 321 Chapter 6 & 7 Psy 321

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These notes go over the last part of cognitive dissonance and begin Chapter 7 on attitudes and persuasion.
Social Psychology
Carrie Smith
Class Notes
PSY321, social, Psychology, Lecture Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Carrie Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
PSY 321:  Social Psychology Chapter 6:  Cognitive Dissonance I. Example of Dissonance Reduction a. Effort Justification i. This happens when we go through something unpleasant and afterwards  we increasingly value what we did to join a group and what happened  ii. Aronson & Mills, 1959 1. They had a group of female undergraduates who signed up to be  part of a group discussion about sex 2. They women had to go through a screening process a. 1/3 went through a basic screening b. 1/3 went through a mild initiation i. These women had to go through a sensitive  screening and had to read provocative words to a  stranger  c. 1/3 went through a harsh initiation i. These women had to read a list of explicit words to  a male stranger ii. They were then asked to read a passage from an  erotic novel 3. All of the women were accepted and had to listen to the group a. They listened to a group discussion on the sex of  invertebrates 4. They were then asked to rate how much they liked the group a. The third group of women, the one that had to undergo the  harsh initiation, ended up liking the group the most 5. Hazing is an effective way to get people to be dedicated to a group a. Hazing is not good though  II. Predicting Dissonance a. When does inconsistency produce dissonance? i. The Self is implicated 1. Your behavior truly reflects the type of person you are 2. We are especially likely to feel dissonance when it involves the  Self ii. When we have free choice 1. If someone made us do something we are less likely to feel  dissonance 2. When we feel like we had a choice we feel dissonance iii. When we have fully committed 1. When we have already done what was asked of us iv. The consequences were foreseeable 1. When you feel like you could have seen something coming you  can feel dissonance v. We expend real effort  1. We really tried hard and we went through a lot  Chapter 7:  Attitudes and Persuasion I. What is an attitude? a. An evaluation of someone or something in a positive or negative manner II. What does this have to do with social psychology? a. We have a sense that attitudes predict behavior b. Because people have interests in our behavior it makes an attitude important III. How do attitudes differ? a. Implicit v. Explicit Attitudes  i. Implicit:  Unconscious attitudes ii. Explicit:  Conscious attitudes  iii. You can have different levels of explicit and implicit attitudes b. Attitude Valence  i. Valence means direction ii. Some of our attitudes are positive or negative  iii. When someone says they are ambivalent they are trying to say that they  don’t care 1. This is the wrong usage  2. It does not mean that you do not care 3. It means both directions  4. It means that their attitude is split and that they feel strongly about  both sides c. Attitude Strength  i. Some of our attitudes are stronger than others 1. Attitude accessibility a. How easily does this attitude spring to mind b. You think of strong attitudes quicker than others  2. Resistant to change a. Stronger attitudes are resistant to change IV. Attitudes and Behavior a. Attitudes affect behavior…right? i. LaPiere (1934) 1. He traveled the country with a Chinese American couple a. They traveled from the east to west coast b. During this time period there was a lot of anti­Asian  sentiment c. They visited 251 restaurants on their way i. They expected to not be served 1. They were only refused service one time  2. After the trip, he sent a survey to each restaurant that they had  visited a. He asked if they would serve Chinese patrons i. 128 restaurants sent the survey back  1. 92% said that they would not serve Chinese  patrons 3. This was first study that showed a clear difference between  attitudes and behavior b. What affects how well attitudes affect behavior? i. Accessibility 1. The more accessible the more likely you will behave that way ii. Strength 1. Strong attitudes are more predictive of behavior iii. Level of Specificity 1. People will often assess the wrong attitude iv. Personal Relevance  1. Sivacek & Crano (1982) a. They asked college students how they felt about the  drinking age being raised from 18 to 21 i. Two types of students  1. The difference was their vested interest in  the situation a. Students who had a high vested  interest were the ones who were 18  and did not want to lose their  drinking privileges b. Students who had a low vested  interest were the ones who were 21  and older and were not directly  affected by the change but still did  not want the law to change  b. How many students would make phone calls to convince  people to vote against the change i. Students with a high vested interest were more  willing to make phone calls  ii. Students with low vested interest were less likely to  make phone calls v. Interpersonal Aspects of the Situation 1. Your social environment will change your behavior so you cannot  act you attitude vi. Other Situational Constraints 1. The environment just does not allow you to act in accordance with  you attitudes


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