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Intro to Geology, Week 4 Notes

by: Kayla Mathias

Intro to Geology, Week 4 Notes GEL020

Marketplace > Kutztown University of Pennsylvania > Geology > GEL020 > Intro to Geology Week 4 Notes
Kayla Mathias
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures from the fourth week of class including plate tectonics, plate boundaries, and convergences.
Introduction to Geology
Dr. Tindall
Class Notes
Geology, intro, rocks, minerals, Plate Tectonics, plate boundaries, lithosphere, Convergence, Wegener
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEL020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Tindall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 09/24/16
Intro to Geology—Week 4 Notes Chapter 4—Plate Tectonics Alfred Wegener (~1910) came up with the theory of continental drift and Pangaea. Evidence: Coastlines and rock assemblages match -Rock Assemblages: sequences of rocks that describe the geologic history (animal and plant fossils, glacial regions and glacial striations) No one believed Wegener because they thought the Earth was solid rock and, therefore, continents would not be able to move. However, during the World Wars, people began studying and mapping the ocean floor and found that the age of the ocean floor is symmetrical. Seafloor Spreading Magma comes up in the ocean floor and spreads the plates apart 1. Subduction zones: Plates collide and one gets reabsorbed into the Earth (trenches are formed) Plate tectonics: the continents and ocean floor are made of rigid plates of rock (lithosphere) that can move above a slowly circulating, gooey interiorWegener was MOSTLY right about his continental drift theory. Most tectonic plates contain continental lithosphere AND oceanic lithosphere 1. Lithosphere contains both the crust and the upper rigid part of the mantle A. Oceanic Lithosphere (OL): Crust of the ocean floor, made of silicate minerals with iron and magnesium, Fe and Mg silicates are dark-colored and heavy, very dense. OL is much thinner than the continental lithosphere (approx. 75 km) B. Continental Lithosphere (CL): Crust of continents, made of silicate minerals without Fe and Mg, tends to be light-colored and much less dense, thicker (approx. 150-200 km.) Plate Boundaries 1. Divergent Boundary: Moving apart from each other A. Continental Rifts: CL on both sides and new ocean ridge forming in the middle B. Oceanic Ridges: Oceanic lithosphere on both sides 2. Convergent Boundaries: Plates move towards each other A. Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence: i. Oceanic lithosphere on both sides of the plate boundary. ii. Older, colder, denser lithosphere subducts. iii. Earthquakes happen at shallow (0-70km.), intermediate (70-300 km.), and deep (300-700 km.) depths. iv. Line of volcanic islands in the ocean. v. Volcanoes are on the overriding (top) plate (Aleutian Islands in Alaska). vi. Deep ocean trench forms B. Oceanic-Continental Convergence: i. Oceanic lithosphere gets subducted by the CL. ii. Trench forms between plates. Volcanoes along the coast of continent (Cascade Mts. in WA and OR). iii. Earthquakes down to 700 km C. Continental-Continental Convergence: i. Giant mountain ranges without volcanoes. ii. Develops from oceanic-continental convergence. iii. Earthquakes up to approx. 300 km. Subduction stops (Himalayas and Appalacians 3. Transform Boundaries: Plates’ motion is parallel. Small mountains, no volcanoes, and shallow and intermediate earthquakes (San Andreas Fault)


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