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A&P-Week 5

by: A Jones

A&P-Week 5 Bio 202

A Jones
C of C
GPA 3.5

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Human Anatomy
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by A Jones on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 202 at College of Charleston taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
9/24/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web Test 3­test­3­flash­cards/?new The esophagus connect the laryngopharynx to the: stomach parietal cells: HCl + intrinsic factor (vitamin B 12 absorption) chief cells: pepsinogen, converted to pepsin to begin protein digestion mucous cells: – aid in protecting from acid Where does major absorption occur?: small intestine The hormones secretin and cholecystokinin are made in the: duodenum The filtration membrane allows the following to pass through: water, ions, and glucose The urinary system functions to: regulate BP and BV, regulate NA K CL, stabilize pH blood vessel that branches into glomerulus: afferent arteriole PCT: delivers filtrate to descending loop of henle section through kidneys will show; renal cortex, renal medulla, ureter, renal pelvis Glomerular hydro static pressure: drive filtration at the glomerulus  When aldosterone is release ____ is released: sodium ADH leads to: more urine production and dehydration Major Regions of the tooth Crown: area of tooth covered by enamel above gum­line Root: inferior portion (base) of the tooth (below the gum) Pulp cavity: interior chamber of the tooth Material the tooth is made of: Enamel & Dentin Pulp: blood vessels & nerves found in pulp cavity I hope you have the picture that urine formation is a 3 step process and each is important to help the body get rid of wastes and any excess water and ions but keep all the good stuff – nutrients, ions and the needed water to keep blood volume constant Note the wastes that make their way into the urine – urea is present in the greatest amount! Note it is a waste metabolite from protein metabolism (ammonia to urea). Also you have to trace and understand filtrate pathway –know and understand where the filtrate goes as it leaves Bowman’s capsule! PCT has largest % of reabsorption but the loop of Henle concentrates the filtrate further. Know the difference in what happens on the descending versus the ascending. Note the three parts of the filtration membrane­ just like in the lungs where gas exchange occurs between alveoli and capillaries there is simple squamous epithelium on both sides! – fenestrated­0266­43e1­8cb2­34653109e394&b=7fa5e844­aacc­4853­b1/3­626a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/24/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web capillaries = glomerulus, and podocytes which are the inner layer of bowman’s capsule that cling to the glomerulus + a basement membrane. The blood is filtered into the capsular space. The filtrate then moves through the nephron for processing. You need to have a general idea of what gets absorbed and where in the nephron other than the Loop of Henle(descending is just water and ascending is just NaCl). Figure 23.9 shows all the nutrients being reabsorbed in PCT! Note that filtration pushes out a LARGE amount of what is in the blood in the glomerular capillaries EXCEPT CELLS AND LARGE PROTEINS (note some small proteins make it through but all are normally reabsorbed). In the rest of the structures of the nephron, reabsorption reclaims a large volume of water, nutrients and ions­ if not we would dehydrate and starve!!! You do not have to memorize values for filtration pressures BUT you need to realize you have glomerular hydrostatic pressure pushing fluids out of the glomerulus and it is opposed by the other 2 – capsular and blood colloid osmotic pressure (which draws fluid from Bowman’s capsule back into plasma in the glomerulus)! So there is a net filtration pressure For transport mechanisms of tubular reabsorption –many require proteins to reclaim the various molecules(facilitated diffusion), some taking them in the same direction (symport) or opposite directions(anti or countertransport). Just note this – do not memorize how each travels! Water moves by osmosis. There are hormones that influence the reabsorption at the DCT and collecting duct and hormones that get released to ensure that we keep the blood pressure JUST RIGHT IN THE KIDNEYS! . Please review the role of these hormones and how they influence blood osmolality, volume and urine osmolality and volume. Aldosterone does affect 4 ions ­Na, K, H and Cl. It plays a major role in Na reabsorption which pulls Cl with it. The other two ions get moved to the filtrate (secretion) in the exchange process! So big picture – if you retain more water and move it back into the blood you make less urine and vice versa! Note the role of autoregulation which uses the myogenic control which involves JG cells and macula densa cells (location of both) – to affect the diameter of the afferent arteriole and­0266­43e1­8cb2­34653109e394&b=7fa5e844­aacc­4853­bd152/36a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/24/2016 Test 3 | Evernote Web maintain GFR. You must know all anatomical structures of the kidney ­ what they connect to in the pathway including blood vessels!­0266­43e1­8cb2­34653109e394&b=7fa5e844­aacc­4853­bd15­626a4c458d58&ses=4&sh=1&sds3/3


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