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Epi-Week 5

by: A Jones

Epi-Week 5 Heal 350 Epidemiology

A Jones
C of C
GPA 3.5

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Dr. Kollath-Cotanno
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by A Jones on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Heal 350 Epidemiology at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Kollath-Cotanno in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/24/16
9/24/2016 Epi­ Exam 1 | Evernote Web Epi- Exam 1 Quizle­test­1­flash­cards/?new ***email creator for password History of Epi Van Leeuwenhoek: invented the first microscope Jenner: develops smallpox vaccine Francesco Redi: dispelled the theory of spontaneous with meat and maggot experiment James Lind: the vitamin C in  citrus fruits prevented scurvy (a nutrient deficient disease) among sailors  Ramazzini: made a connection between work and health  Semmelweis: Germ theory, particles from cadavers spread through blood Koch: age of bacteriology, grow it in lab, study parasites Florence Nightingale: nurse studied soldiers and documented mortality and health conditions Ethics Nuremberg Code : Voluntary participation in research What conditions require an IRB Review?: Research on a human subject What is informed consent?: 1. Inform participants about required tasks 2. Voluntary participation 3. Confidentiality 4. Benefits and Risks 5. Contact Info Special issues with minors : 1. Active parental consent­ written parental permission 2. Passive parental consent­ parents have to opt their child out How do you maintain confidentiality?: ­Keep data under lock and key ­Use study numbers on data forms ­Destroy identifying information after study ­Publish data in aggregate form­8368­4f09­98e7­2f68c248cb16&b=a08dad63­2e58­41/7­ad9c­ed9785553b28&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/24/2016 Epi­ Exam 1 | Evernote Web Disease Concepts Disease: an interruption, cessation,or disorder of bodily functions Etiology: the study of disease Classifying Diseases 1. Communicable which can spread from person to person vs non communicable 2. Acute with is sudden/ not severe vs chronic 4 Types of Communicable disease 1. Person­person direct vertical: from an individual to offspring horizontal: passes from infected individual. e.g. STDs, skin to skin, needles indirect Formites: contaminated objects such as pens, doorknobs, desks, and toys Droplets 2. Common vehicle: nonliving object medium such as food poisoning at a cookout 3. Zoonoses: vertebrae animals direct via bite such as rabies and eating an animal indirect via a vector 4. Vector borne­8368­4f09­98e7­2f68c248cb16&b=a08dad63­2e58­4abe­ad9c­e2/785553b28&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/24/2016 Epi­ Exam 1 | Evernote Web Stages of Communicable Disease 1. Stage of susceptibility 2. Stage of pre­symptomatic disease Incubation period Latency period 3. Stage of clinical disease 4. Stage of recovery, disability, or death Immunization­ introduction of a substance that causes that immune system to develop antibodies against a disease Immunization and Immunity­8368­4f09­98e7­2f68c248cb16&b=a08dad63­2e58­4abe­ad9c­ed9785553b3/7ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/24/2016 Epi­ Exam 1 | Evernote Web Active immunity: the body produces its own antibodies (through vaccine or having the disease). Passive immunity: acquired through trans­placental transfer of a mother’s immunity to diseases to the unborn child. Herd Immunity : Resistance a population has to the invasion and spread of an infectious disease If a population is mostly protected from a disease by immunizations (say 80% or more) major epidemics are less likely Measures of Disease Occurence: Morbidity Fixed Population: based on an event, permanent e.g.­war veterans, victims of a hurricane Dynamic: based on a condition, transitory  When describing population consider: 1. Number of People affected 2. Size of population 3. time period Morbidity : Sickness or ppl with disease=Relationship between incidence and prevalence Incidence : Number of new cases of disease that develop in a population over a specified time interval Incidence is a measure of risk­8368­4f09­98e7­2f68c248cb16&b=a08dad63­2e58­4abe­a4/7­ed9785553b28&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/24/2016 Epi­ Exam 1 | Evernote Web Prevalence New & Existing/Population x 10n Cumulative Incidence New Cases/Total Population at Risk x 10n Incidence Rate (Incidence Density) New Cases/Person Time Risk x 10n 09/20/2016 Comparing Disease Frequencies­8368­4f09­98e7­2f68c248cb16&b=a08dad63­2e58­4abe­ad95/7d9785553b28&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/24/2016 Epi­ Exam 1 | Evernote Web Cumulative Incidence of  Total Population a+b/a+b+c+d Cumulative Incidence of Exposed   a/a+b Cumulative Incidence of Unexposed c/c+d Week 5: Measuring Disease Occurrence­8368­4f09­98e7­2f68c248cb16&b=a08dad63­2e58­46/7­ad9c­ed9785553b28&ses=4&sh=1&sds=5& 9/24/2016 Epi­ Exam 1 | Evernote Web Age­specific Mortality Rate deaths of that age pop/population in that age group x 10n Infant Mortality Rate infant deaths from birth to one year/number of live births Case fatality Rate death after diagnosis/number of persons with disease x 100 Proportionate Mortality Ratio deaths from a specific disease/deaths in the population x 100 Problems in the Use of mortality Data: Differences in accuracy and completeness of medical information on death certificates Accuracy of the population estimates (homeless) Use of different classification systems in different locations Changing classification systems with time Failure to capture and code multiple causes­8368­4f09­98e7­2f68c248cb16&b=a08dad63­2e58­4abe­ad9c­ed9785553b28&ses=4&sh=17/7s=5&


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