Psych 101 Chapter 2 outline
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelebet Engida on Saturday September 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Washington taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 09/24/16
Phycology 101 Chapter 2 The Biology of Behavior A. Biology and Behavior a. Biological psychologists: study the link between biology and behavior. b. Our brain and nerves help us with every urge. Cry, laugh, smile, scream B. Neural Communication a. Neuron (nerve cell): the basic building block of the nerves system. i. Dendrites: bushy neuron that receive messages and conduct impulse toward cell body. ii. Axon: extension that passes messages. iii. Myelin Sheath: a fatty tissue layer that cases the axon and speeds up the process. iv. Glial Cells(glue): cells that nourish the nervous system with neutrinos and play role in learning & thinking. b. The Neural Impulse i. Action Potential: brief electrical charge that travels through the Axon. i. Neurons generate electricity like a battery from chemicals and trigger each other like dominoes. Most signals are, a. Excitatory: fast neuron movement. b. Inhibitory: puts a brake to the neuron movement. ii. Excitatory Inhibitory=Threshold: the level of stimulation required to trigger neural impulse. iii. Stronger stimuli will trigger more neuron to fire more frequently and weaker stimuli to fire less neurons. c. How Neurons Communicate i. Synapse: the space or the gap between the axon end (terminal brunch) and the dendrite. ii. Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that travels the synaptic gap between neurons to tell the other neuron to fire or not. d. How Neurotransmitters Influence Us i. Endorphins: neurotransmitters that are linked to pain control and pleasure. i. Acetylcholine: enables muscle action learning and memory. ii. Dopamine: influences movement, attention and emotion. iii. Serotonin: affects mood, hunger, arousal and sleep. iv. Norepinephrine: help control alertness and arousal. v. GABA: a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. vi. Glutamate: major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory. C. The Nervous System a. Nervous system: the body’s electrochemical communication network consisting of peripheral and central nervous system. b. Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord. c. Peripheral nervous system: sensory and motor neurons that connect the central NS to the rest of the body. d. Nerves: electrical cable(Axon) link the CNS to sensory receptors, gland and muscles. e. Sensory neurons: carry info from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord. f. Motor Neurons: carry outgoing info from brain and spinal cord to the muscle and gland. g. Interneurons: neurons within the brain and spinal cord neurons in brain and spinal cord to intervene with input and output. i. The peripheral nervous system i. Somatic nervous system (skeletal nervous system): division of peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. ii. Sympathetic nervous system: mobilizes emery in stressful situations. iii. Autonomics (selfregulating) nervous systems: controls the internal organs and glands and things we don’t have to think about. iv. Parasympathetic(homeostasis) nervous system: clams you down after speech, lowers your heart rate, blood pressure. ii. The Central nervous system i. Controls the humanity; talking thinking feeling acting. ii. Reflex: simple automatic response like a kneejerk D. The Endocrine System a. Endocrine system: slow chemical communication in the glands that hold hormones and blood stream. b. Hormones: chemical messengers manufactured by the endocrine gland travel through the blood stream and affect other tissue. c. Adrenal Glands:(norepinephrine and epinephrine) endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidney and have hormones that affect arousal and body stress. d. Pituitary Gland: influences the endocrine and gland. Influenced by the hypothalamus, regulates growth and control endocrine glands. e. (Brain pituitary other glands hormonesbody and brain) E. The Brain a. Lesion: procedure that destructs the brain tissue experimentally. b. Older Brain structure i The Brainstem i. Brainstem: responsible for the body automatic and survival response and the oldest central core. ii. Medulla: base of the brain steam that controls breathing and heartbeat. ii. The Thalamus i. Thalamus: sensory route located on top of brainstem sending message to sensory receiving cortex. iii. The Reticular Formation i. Reticular Formation: nerve network that plays role in arousal. iv. The cerebellum i. Cerebellum: (nonverbal learning and memory) small brain that processes sensory input, coordination of movement and balance. v. The Limbic System i. Limbic System: associated with emotion and drive. a. The Amygdala: two small sized beans that control emotion. b. The Hypothalamus: under the thalamus directing maintenance like eating drinking body temp and governs the endocrine and pituitary, linked with emotion and reward. c. The Hippocampus: coordinates map and direction. vi. The Cerebral Cortex i. The interconnectedness of neuron cells and the entire info processing center. ii. Structure of the cortex a . Frontal lobe: speaking muscle movement and making plan and judgment. b . Parietal lobe: located toward top and rear, receives sensory c . Temporal lobe: above the ear, control auditory area and receives hearing from the opposite ear. d . Occipital lobe: located at the back of the brain and receives visual fields. iii. Function of the cortex a. Motor function i. Motor Cortex: located back of the frontal lobe controls voluntary movement. b. Sensory Functions i. Sensory cortex: located front of the perianal lobe processes body touch and movement sensations. c. Association Areas i. Association Areas: involved in higher motor function like learning, thinking, speaking and remembering. iv. The Brain’s Plasticity a. Plasticity: brains ability to change during childhood by building new pathways based on experience. b. Neurogenesis: formation of new neurons. vii. Our Divided Brain i. Splitting the Brain a . Corpus Callosum: the connection between two Hampshire to share messages. b . Split Brain: condition that results from cutting two hemispheres that connects them. F. Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences a. Environment: every monogenetic influence like the things around as. b. Behavior genetics (differences): study of power and limits of genetics and environmental influence. c. Genes Our Codes for Life i. Chromosomes: Threadlike structure that are made of DNA and contain genes. ii. DNA: complex molecule holds genetic info that makes the chromosome. iii. Genes: biochemical unit that makes up chromosomes, segment of DNA that synthesizes the protein. d. Twin and Adoption Studies i. Identical Vs Fraternal twins a. Identical twins develop from single fertilized egg and split in to two creating identical organisms. b. Fraternal twins develop from separate fertilized egg and share fetal environment. ii. Separated twins i. Jim and Jim who lived in different environment making same decision proves that there is gene influence. iii. Biological Versus Adoptive Relative i. Gene Environment Interaction a. Interaction: environment/experience interact with gene. b. Epigenetics: study of environmental influence on gene expression that occurs with DNA change. G. Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature a. Evolutionary Psychologists (commonalities): study evolution of behavior and mind using natural selection. b. Natural selection: various traits surviving and seceding to the next generation. c. Natural Selection and adaptation i. Mutation: a random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
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