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Chapter 4 and part of 5 notes

by: Hannah Doty

Chapter 4 and part of 5 notes

Marketplace > University of Minnesota - Morris > Sociology > > Chapter 4 and part of 5 notes
Hannah Doty

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These notes cover all of chapter 4 and the start of chapter 5, which will be on our next exam.
Introduction to Sociology
Class Notes
Introduction to Sociology




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Doty on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Minnesota - Morris taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of Minnesota - Morris.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Sock 1101 Introduction to Sociology Notes for Chapter 4 and part of 5 Chapter 4- Culture *Notes taken on 9/12/16*  Culture encompasses the ideas, values and material objects that allow a group to carry out their collective lives in a relative order and harmony.  Acquiring culture helps people adjust to cultural change. o Internal change o External change  Culture and cultural change create and reaffirms rules governing human behavior. *Notes taken on 9/14/16* The Basic Elements of Culture: Values  Values are the general and abstract standards defining what a group or society  considers good, right, just and proper and by definition, what a group or society  considers bad, wrong, unjust and improper.  Values are the broadest elements of culture  Values express a society’s ideas Norms  Norms are rules that guide what people do and how they live.   They are the blueprint for behavior that is culturally shared.  Norms tell people what to do and not do in specific situations  People don’t follow all norms in all situations  Weak norms tend to be ignored or only loosely followed.  norms are reinforced through sanctions, which can be positive (rewards) or  negative (punishment)  Folkways: norms that are relatively unimportant and carry few sanctions  Mores: important norms whose violation is met with a severe negative sanctions Material Culture  Material culture encompasses the artifacts that are reflections of physical  manifest actions of culture o Includes clothes, homes, technology, toys and even weapons Sock 1101 Symbolic Culture and Language  Symbolic culture refers to the nonmaterial aspects of culture  Two key forms are Values and Norms.  Language a set of meaningful symbols that facilitates communications and is an  important aspect of symbolic culture that allows for the storage, sharing, and  development of culture Ideal and Real Culture  Ideal culture­ what the norms and values of society lead us to think people should  believe and do.  Real culture­ what people actually think and od in their everyday lives *Notes taken on 9/20/16 Cultural differences: Ideology  Ideology­ set of hared beliefs that explains the social world and guides people actions.  a dominant Ideology is one upon which many people act Cultural Differences: Subcultures  Subcultures: a group of people who accept much of the dominant culture, but are set  apart from it by one or more culturally significant difference  Subcultures can be grouped by interest, entertainment, fashion, vocabulary or lifestyle. o EX­ LGBTQIA, Hip­hop fans, The Tea Party Cultural Differences: Counterculture  Counterculture­ a group of people who are set apart from the dominant culture  and their norms and values are incompatible with it.  Their actions may be in direct opposition to those of the dominant culture o EX­ KKK, Hippies Culture Wars  Culture wars is a conflict between a subculture or counter culture and the dominant  culture  Can also refer to conflicts between dominant groups who differ on ideology o Contemporary conflicts  Culture wars sometimes leads to the disruption of the social, economic, and political  status quo Sock 1101 Multiculturalism and Assimilation  Multiculturalism is an environment in which cultural differences are accepted and  appreciated by the majority of dominant groups.  Assimilation is a form of adaptation to dominate culture by minority and subordinate  groups Identity Politics  Identity politics refers to strengthen their social position  Often involves tactic used by the minority group when the dominant group is unwilling to accept them o EX­Transgendered people Cultural Relativism and ethnocentrism  This refers to the idea that aspects of culture need to be understood within the context of  the culture with in which they occur o This begins with the process of recognizing differences in cultural values  EX­ everyone going to church in the town and you look like an outsider if  you don’t go to church on Sunday and they try to get you to go.   Eating with family in someone’s house vs eating with family at a  restaurant on thanksgiving.  Ethnocentrism refers to the beliefs that the cultural practices and ideas of one’s own  culture are superior to those other cultures o Practicing this acts as a barrier to cultural understanding Global Culture  Globalization ahs led to a greater acceptance of shared values around the world.   As ideas, information, products, and people flow across the globe, what people value has  become increasingly similar.  Cultural imperialism is the idea that what affects global culture is the most is the  imposition of one dominant culture on the other cultures.   Cultural imperialism can devastate local cultures, particularly indigenous cultures.  Global Culture  Americanization is the importation of a variety of cultural elements that are closely  associated with American culture Sock 1101 o one of the counter actions to cultural imperialism is cultural cleansing or the  process by which one culture seeks to eliminate elements of another culture that it sees as having been imposed on it.  Consumer Culture  Consumer culture is a culture in which the core ideas and material objects related to  consumption and in which consumption is a primary source of meaning in life.   The meaning of things and the people who consume these things is found in which goods  and services are purchased and in the social aspects of consumption. *Notes taken on 9/23/16  Children in a consumer culture is perhaps the most controversial aspect of consumer  culture. o It is the idea that children are highly valued consumers and are socialized into and actively involved in consuming  Nontraditional settings for consumption include areas like health care (doctors,  pharmaceuticals) higher education, and the internet. Post­Consumer Culture  Post­consumer culture refers to losing the ability and/or the desire to consume.  This can be instigated by economic insecurity or even the desire to consume less as a  political orientation.  Culture Jamming  Culture jamming is the radical transformation of an intended message directed as  consumers o Ex­ boycotts, giving Vaccines, Flu shot  This is typically instigated by the mass media, but much culture jamming occurs when  independent social activists take up and transform messages related to social issues. Cyber Culture   The internet is a site on an entirely new culture—cyber culture  The internet has the characteristics of a culture, including distinctive values (openness  and sharing) and Norms (no hacking). Sock 1101 Chapter 5: Socialization *Notes taken on 9/23/16* The Individual and the Self  The primary concern for sociologists it that of the individual in general  Nature o The nature argument suggests that being human is a natural instinct  Nurture o The nurture argument suggests that humanness is based on the way we are  socialized by others, it is taught so learning is the key to being human.  The reality is that both are critically important   To address and validate the importance of social interaction on human development,  studies of feral children were conducted  Symbolic interaction is the theoretical approach most useful to look at the development  of the self is symbolic interactionism People in History of Socialization  Charles Horton Cooley (1864­1929, American) o The looking glass self  Our self­image reflects how others respond to us  We only develop a self­concept by interacting with others  George Herbert Mead (1863­1931, American) o Gestures versus Symbols o Mind refers to an internal conversation using words an also images o The self refers to the ability of the person to view (or take) oneself as an object o The self develops through:  Play stage  Game stage  The generalized other o Mead also distinguished between the:   I­ the part of the self that is unconscious and creative  The me­ the organized set of others attitudes assumed by the individual    


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