PY 101, Learning
PY 101, Learning Psychology 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Rachel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
9/14 Learning: Part 1 Learning: a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience -Associations develop through conditioning, a process in which environmental stimuli and behavioral responses become connected History Arose in early 20 century Behaviorism was the dominant paradigm in the 1980s, and has had a lasting impact on many areas of psychology. Classical Conditioning Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning: a neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response -Ex. Dog know that a can opener is associated with food Learning to associate 2 objects with each other Ivan Pavlov Every time he had food for the dog, he rang a bell. The dogs then know when a bell rings they should get food. Unconditioned stimulus (US): stimulus that elicits a response without any prior learning Unconditioned response (UR): response that doesn’t have to be learned Conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that elicits a response only after learning takes place Conditioned response (CR): response to conditioned stimulus; response that has been learned Baby Albert: he was put in a room with a rat and every time he saw the rat, they rang a loud bell. Eventually they used other white objects, and he became fearful of the color white. Some things can be conditioned easier because it is important for survival Biological preparedness: natural instinct Operant conditioning Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning): a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future Ex. Using a cell phone in class, getting called out for it, most likely won’t do it again. Law of effect: if you perform a behavior and feel good, you will likely do it again (vice versa) Cat is placed in a box and the food is placed outside the box. There is a lever to open the door, cat tries to go through the window, but it doesn’t work, accidentally presses lever and the door opens. It then realizes a few times later that, in order to get the food, he has to press the lever. Operant conditioning has to do with our own behaviors (consequence/reward) If I do ____, then, this ____ happens. Reinforcement and Punishment Reinforcement increases the likelihood of behavior -Positive: the administration of a stimulus to increase probability of a behavior’s being repeated Giving a child a compliment or candy for good job. Getting paid to complete a task. Watching your favorite TV show after doing all your homework Dog gets treat for sitting/laying down -Negative: removal of a stimulus to increase probability of a behavior’s being repeated (bribery) Scratching an insect bite that itches (reinforces scratching behavior by removing itch) (pain goes away when itching) Daydreaming or doodling in a boring class (reinforces daydreaming/doodling behavior by removing boredom) Studying when you worry about a test (reinforces study behavior by reducing worry) Punishment decreases probability that a behavior will recur -Positive: administration of a stimulus to decrease probability of a behavior’s recurring Yelling “no” at a dog for jumping up on people (adds scold to reduce behavior) Spanking a child (for coloring on wall) A speeding ticket Burning your hand when you touch a hot stove Getting nauseous after eating rotten food -Negative: removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior’s recurring Child has a toy taken away for fighting with sister Teen is grounded for misbehavior 9/16 Learning: Part 2 Observational: learning by watching how others behave Vicarious Learning Vicarious learning: learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the same action -A key distinction in learning is between the acquisition of a behavior and its performance -Learning a behavior does not necessarily lead to performing that behavior Learning of Fear Lab-reared monkeys are not afraid of snakes the way wild monkeys are Animals’ fears can be learned through observation Social forces play a role in a fear-learning in humans too Phobia: becomes interfering with life Vicarious learning: Bobo Doll -Presented bobo doll to people to see if they become aggressive They showed kids a woman who hit/kick the doll. When kids went in, they repeated the behavior. Modeling The imitation of behavior through observational learning -Modeling is effective only if the observer is physically capable of imitating the behavior -What makes modeling more effective? Individual attention You are choosing to perform the act, and seeing if you are capable of it. Modeling: Smoking Behaviors in Teens Adolescents, who associate smoking with admirable figures, are more likely to begin smoking.
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