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BIO Week 5

by: Kaitlyn Meinzer

BIO Week 5 BIOS 1000

Kaitlyn Meinzer

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About this Document

Animal Diversity
Animal Diversity
Patrick Hassett
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1000 at Ohio University taught by Patrick Hassett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Week 5 • Mollusks ◦ Include: ‣ Gastropods ‣ Bivalves ‣ Cephalopods ◦ Nearly 100,000 species in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats ◦ Mollusk Evolution ‣ Smallest mollusk • Small wormlike forms with no shell • Few millimeters ‣ More advanced • Complex forms with advanced brains and eyes • Ex: Squid and Octopus ◦ Building a Mollusk ‣ Shell for defense ‣ Heart and circulatory system ‣ Food for locomotion ‣ Radula, an abrasive tongue, for feeding ‣ More complex nervous system, culminating in the eye and brain of cephalopod ◦ Shell ‣ Formed by mantle ‣ The mantle is a layer of tissue lining the shell ‣ It deposits new material at the shell edge, and maintains older shell material ◦ Radula ‣ Feeding structure for scraping surfaces ‣ Like a toothed tongue that consistently grows ‣ Form is adapted to function: scraping algae, tearing flesh, drilling through shells or rocks ◦ Body Forms ‣ Primitive form • Was just a hard covering for the body • Still found in deep sea ‣ Shell elongates, and gas-filled chambers are added to allow swimming • Chambers for buoyancy ‣ Coiling produced Cephalopods, while loss of chambers produces gastropods • No chambers, live on bottom ‣ Sides compress to allow shell to slide into sediment ‣ Bivalve (two-shelled) shape provides greater protection and efficiency • Gastropods ◦ 1. Snails and relatives, limpets, abalone ◦ 2. Air-breathers: Land Snails and Slugs ◦ 3. Nudibranchs: Have lost the shell ‣ Many can 'steal' the cnidocytes of their cnidarian prey ◦ How to build a shell ‣ Basic material is calcium carbonate laid down in layers ‣ Layers of protein can strength ‣ Outer layer is often covered with thicker protein layer ◦ Shell shapes- cost and benefits ‣ Calcium carbonate more soluble in cold water • Makes shell more costly to build and maintain ‣ Thick shells are good protection, but are costly to build and hard to carry around ‣ Protein layers will reduce weight for same strength ◦ Shell extensions in Murex spp. ‣ elaborate shells seen more often in tropics due to costs ◦ Exposure to sun is a problem for intertidal mollusks, especially in tropics ‣ Shells often lighter colored and more pointed, oriented towards the sun ‣ Can keep shell 5-6 C cooler than adjacent rock ◦ Predation ‣ Oyster Drill • Oyster Drill uses radula to drill holes in shells to prey on other mollusks ‣ Fish • Porcupine fish • Some have teeth for cracking shell ‣ Box Crab • Powerful leverage from pincers • Claws chip away at opening to shell, exposing the soft tissue ‣ Shell defense • Shell healing • Smooth surfaced shells are difficult to grip • Thickening of shell opening strengthens shell against attack • Corrugations in opening help anchor body and make opening smaller


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