Sociology 101: 9/26 Quiz Study Guide
Sociology 101: 9/26 Quiz Study Guide soci101002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Susana Gomez on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci101002 at Towson University taught by Jason Freeman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see introduction to sociology in Sociology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
___ important person ___ vocab Study Guide: Socialization Socialization : the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture Humans need social experience to learn their culture & to survive Social experience is the foundation of personality : a person’s fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking, and feeling The Biological Sciences: the role of nature: Charles Darwin’s 1859 study of evolution led to a misunderstanding of human behavior Europeans linked different behaviors within different society to biology rather than culture→ethnocentric view helped justify colonialism The Social Science: the role of nurture: Psychologist John B. Watson (18781958) developed a theory called behaviorism: behavior is not instinctive but learned Without denying the importance of nature→nurture matters more in shaping human behavior (“nurture is our nature”) Social Isolation: Harry & Margaret Harlow (1962): placed rhesus monkeys in various conditions of social isolation o Found that complete isolation for even 6 months seriously disturbed monkey’s development o Harlow's then placed infant rhesus monkeys in cages with artificial mother made of wire mesh with a wooden head and the nipple of a feeding tube where breast would be Monkeys able to survive but were unable to interact with others when placed in a group o 3rd condition: monkeys isolated with an artificial wire mesh “mother” covered with soft terry cloth Monkeys showed less developmental damage than earlier groups o Harlow’s found that infant monkeys could recover from about 3 months of isolation but at about 6 months, isolation caused irreversible emotional & behavioral damage Studies of Isolated Children Anna: after her discovery, Anna received extensive medical attention & soon showed improvement o Daus visited after 10 days & found her more alert & even smiling o After a year & half she could feed herself & play with toys o At age 8 her mental development was less than that of 2 year old→died at age of 10 of blood disorder Isabelle: after more than 6 years of virtual isolation Isabelle displayed same lack of responsiveness as Anna o Isabelle hsf benefit of intensive learning program directed by psychologists o Within week Isabelle was trying to speak→year & half later she knew about 2,000 words o By 14, she was attending 6th grade classes Genie: From age 2, Genie was tied to potty chair in a dark garage o When rescued at age 13 Genie weighed only 59 lbs & had mental development of 1 year old o With intensive treatment she became physically healthy but her language ability remains that of young child Carol Gilligan’s theory of Gender and Moral Development Gilligan compared moral development of girls & boys & concluded that the 2 sexes use different standards of rightness: o Boys have a justice perspective: relying on formal rules to define right and wrong o Girls have a care and responsibility perspective: judging a situation with an eye toward personal relationships and loyalties Impersonal rules dominates men’s lives in the workplace but personal relationships are more relevant to women’s lives as mothers & caregivers George Herbert Mead’s theory of the Social Self George Herbert Mead (18631931) developed the theory of social behaviorism to explain how social experience develops an individual’s personality o The Self: Mead’s central concept the part of an individual’s personality composed of selfawareness & selfimage 1. The self is not there at birth, it develops 2. The self develops only with social experience 3. Social experience is the exchange of symbols 4. Seeking meaning leads people to imagine other people’s intentions 5. Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s POV o The Looking Glass Shelf: As we interact with others,, the people around us become a mirror in which we can see ourselves Charles Hurton Cooley (18641929) used phrase lookingglass self: a selfimage based on how we think others see us o The I and Me: Mead’s 6th point: by taking the role of the other, we become selfaware Self has 2 parts: 1st part operates as subject, being active & spontaneous (the “I”), 2nd part works as an object, the way we imagine others see us (the “me”) All social experience has both components: we initiate an action (“I” phase) & then we continue the action based on how others respond to us (“me” phase) o Development of the Self: According to Mead, key to developing self is learning to take role of the other Because of limited social experience, infants can only do this through imitation: they mime behavior without understanding intentions As children learn to use language and other symbols, the self emerges in the form of play Play involves assuming rules modeled on significant others: people such as parents who have special importance for situation When: Engaging in imitation Engaging in Engaging in Recognizing the play games generalized other No one (no ability to One other in Many others in Many others in many Self is able to take role of: take role of the other) one situation one situation situations Generalized other: widespread cultural norms and values we use as references in evaluating ourselves Erik H Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development Stage 1: Infancy the challenge of trust (vs mistrust) o Between birth & about 18 months, infants face the 1st of life’s challenges to establish sense of trust that their world is safe place Stage 2: Toddlerhood the challenge of autonomy (vs doubt & shame) o Challenge at age 3: learn skills to cope with the world in confident way Stage 3: Preschool the challenge of initiative (vs guilt) o 4&5 year olds must learn to engage their surrounding or experience guilt at failing to meet expectations of parents & others Stage 4: Preadolescence the challenge of industriousness (vs inferiority) o Between ages 613 children enter school, make friends, & strike out on their own more & more Stage 5: Adolescence the challenge of making a difference (vs selfabsorption) o During teen years young people struggle to establish own identity Stage 6: Young Adulthood the challenge of intimacy (vs isolation) o Challenge of young adults is to form & maintain intimate relationships with others Stage 7: Middle Adulthood the challenge of making a difference (vs selfabsorption) o Challenge of middle age is contributing to lives of others in the family, at work, and in larger world Stage 8: Old Age the challenge of integrity (vs despair) o As end of life approaches, people hope to look back on what they have accomplished with a sense of integrity & satisfaction Agents of Socialization Nurture in early childhood: whether children learn to see themselves as strong/weak, smart/stupid, loved/tolerated depends largely on quality of surroundings provided by parents & other caregivers Race & class: children learn to recognize that their family’s social standing affects how others see them & in time how they come to see themselves o Lowerclass parents more likely to want “obedience” as key trait for child o Upperclass parents more likely to praise children who can “think for themselves” Cultural capital: advances learning & creates a sense of confidence in children (typically upper class) that they will succeed later in life The school: schools enlarge children’s social world & helps them understand the importance of factors such as race & social position o Gender: schools join with families in socializing children into gender roles o What children learn: hidden curriculum many things taught by schools informally ex) spelling bees teaches there are winners & losers The peer group: a social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common o Among peers children learn how to form relationships on their own & their groups offer the chance to discuss interests that adults may not share with their children (clothing/popular music) or permit (drugs & sex) o Peers may affect shortterm interests but parents have greater influence on longterm goals Anticipatory socialization: learning that helps a person achieve a desired position The mass media: the means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience o The extent of mass media exposure: african american children reported watching tv more than both white & hispanic children o Extensive tv viewing takes time away from interactions with parents & peers as well as exercise & other activities more likely to promote personal development & good health o Television & politics: while there is wide range of political opinion in media doesn’t mean average person experiences very much diversity when it comes to mass media→liberals & conservatives inhabit different worlds by sticking close to their specific outlets that present viewpoints which they already agree with Television & violence: media increases our exposure to diverse cultures & provokes discussion of current issue Socialization not just a simple matter of learning but also complex balancing act Socialization & the Life Course Childhood: children in mostly africa & asia expected to work in in factories/ agriculture (physical labor) while in US parents try hard to preserve childhood & youth for their children a Adolescence: a time of social contradictions; when people are no longer children but not yet adults Adulthood: the time when most of life’s accomplishments take place, including pursuing a career & raising a family o Early adulthood: early adulthood40 years old, young adults learn to manage day to day affairs for themselves o Middle adulthood: ages 4065, people sense that their life circumstances pretty well set & become more aware of fragility of health Old age: the latest years of adulthood & the final stage of life (begins around mid 60s) Gerontology : the study of aging and the elderly (both physical & social dimensions) o Aging & biology: sensory abilities taste, sight, touch, smell, and especially hearing becomes less sharp with age o Aging and culture: culture shapes how we understand growing old Gerontocracy : a form of social organization in which the elderly have the ost wealth, power, and prestige Ageism: prejudice & discrimination against older people o Aging and income: although seniors continue to lag behind younger adults in income, recent decades have provided greater gains for them compared to younger adults Death & Dying: Elizabeth KüblerRoss (1969): described death as orderly transition involving five distinct stages: 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Negotiation 4. Resignation 5. Acceptance The LifeCourse: Patterns & Variations: o Although each stage of life linked to biological process of aging, life course is largely a social construction o In any society the stages of life course present certain problems & transitions that involve learning something new & unlearning familiar routines o Cohort : a category of people with something in common, usually their age Resocialization: Total Institutions Total institution: a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society & manipulated by an administrative staff Resocialization : radically changing an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling the environment
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