New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Sociology 101: 9/26 Quiz Study Guide

by: Susana Gomez

Sociology 101: 9/26 Quiz Study Guide soci101002

Marketplace > Towson University > Sociology > soci101002 > Sociology 101 9 26 Quiz Study Guide
Susana Gomez

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes should cover what's going to be on the quiz on Monday (9/26/16).
introduction to sociology
Jason Freeman
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in introduction to sociology

Popular in Sociology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Susana Gomez on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci101002 at Towson University taught by Jason Freeman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see introduction to sociology in Sociology at Towson University.

Similar to soci101002 at Towson


Reviews for Sociology 101: 9/26 Quiz Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/25/16
    ___­ important person ___­ vocab Study Guide: Socialization   Socialization : the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and  learn culture  Humans need social experience to learn their culture & to survive   Social experience is the foundation of  personality : a person’s fairly consistent pattern of acting,  thinking, and feeling  The Biological Sciences: the role of nature:  Charles Darwin’s 1859 study of evolution led to a misunderstanding of human behavior­  Europeans linked different behaviors within different society to biology rather than  culture→ethnocentric view helped justify colonialism The Social Science: the role of nurture:  Psychologist John B. Watson (1878­1958) developed a theory called behaviorism: behavior is not instinctive but learned   Without denying the importance of nature→nurture matters more in shaping human behavior  (“nurture is our nature”) Social Isolation:  Harry & Margaret Harlow (1962): placed rhesus monkeys in various conditions of social isolation o Found that complete isolation for even 6 months seriously disturbed monkey’s  development  o Harlow's then placed infant rhesus monkeys in cages with artificial mother made of wire  mesh with a wooden head and the nipple of a feeding tube where breast would be  Monkeys able to survive but were unable to interact with others when placed in a group o 3rd condition: monkeys isolated with an artificial wire mesh “mother” covered with soft  terry cloth  Monkeys showed less developmental damage than earlier groups  o Harlow’s found that infant monkeys could recover from about 3 months of isolation but  at about 6 months, isolation caused irreversible emotional & behavioral damage Studies of Isolated Children  Anna: after her discovery, Anna received extensive medical attention & soon showed  improvement o Daus visited after 10 days & found her more alert & even smiling o After a year & half she could feed herself & play with toys o At age 8 her mental development was less than that of 2 year old→died at age of 10 of  blood disorder  Isabelle: after more than 6 years of virtual isolation Isabelle displayed same lack of  responsiveness as Anna o Isabelle hsf benefit of intensive learning program directed by psychologists o Within week Isabelle was trying to speak→year & half later she knew about 2,000 words o By 14, she was attending 6th grade classes  Genie: From age 2, Genie was tied to potty chair in a dark garage o When rescued at age 13 Genie weighed only 59 lbs & had mental development of 1 year  old o With intensive treatment she became physically healthy but her language ability remains  that of young child Carol Gilligan’s theory of Gender and Moral Development  Gilligan compared moral development of girls & boys & concluded that the 2 sexes use different  standards of rightness: o Boys have a justice perspective: relying on formal rules to define right and wrong o Girls have a care and responsibility perspective: judging a situation with an eye toward  personal relationships and loyalties  Impersonal rules dominates men’s lives in the workplace but personal relationships are more  relevant to women’s lives as mothers & caregivers George Herbert Mead’s theory of the Social Self  George Herbert Mead (1863­1931) developed the theory of social behaviorism to explain how  social experience develops an individual’s personality o The Self: Mead’s central concept­ the part of an individual’s personality composed of  self­awareness & self­image 1. The self is not there at birth, it develops 2. The self develops only with social experience 3. Social experience is the exchange of symbols 4. Seeking meaning leads people to imagine other people’s intentions  5. Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s POV o The Looking Glass Shelf:  As we interact with others,, the people around us become a mirror in which we  can see ourselves  Charles Hurton Cooley (1864­1929) used phrase looking­glass self: a self­image  based on how we think others see us o The I and Me:  Mead’s 6th point: by taking the role of the other, we become self­aware  Self has 2 parts: 1st part operates as subject, being active & spontaneous (the  “I”), 2nd part works as an object, the way we imagine others see us (the “me”)  All social experience has both components: we initiate an action (“I” phase) &  then we continue the action based on how others respond to us (“me” phase) o Development of the Self:  According to Mead, key to developing self is learning to take role of the other  Because of limited social experience, infants can only do this through imitation:  they mime behavior without understanding intentions  As children learn to use language and other symbols, the self emerges in the form of play  Play involves assuming rules modeled on significant others: people such as  parents who have special importance for situation  When: Engaging in imitation Engaging in  Engaging in  Recognizing the  play games generalized other No one (no ability to  One other in  Many others in  Many others in many Self is able to  take role of: take role of the other) one situation one situation  situations  Generalized other: widespread cultural norms and values we use as references in  evaluating ourselves Erik H Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development  Stage 1: Infancy­ the challenge of trust (vs mistrust) o Between birth & about 18 months, infants face the 1st of life’s challenges to establish  sense of trust that their world is safe place  Stage 2: Toddlerhood­ the challenge of autonomy (vs doubt & shame) o Challenge at age 3: learn skills to cope with the world in confident way   Stage 3: Preschool­ the challenge of initiative (vs guilt) o 4&5 year olds must learn to engage their surrounding or experience guilt at failing to  meet expectations of parents & others  Stage 4: Preadolescence­ the challenge of industriousness (vs inferiority)  o Between ages 6­13 children enter school, make friends, & strike out on their own more & more  Stage 5: Adolescence­ the challenge of making a difference (vs self­absorption) o During teen years young people struggle to establish own identity   Stage 6: Young Adulthood­ the challenge of intimacy (vs isolation) o Challenge of young adults is to form & maintain intimate relationships with others  Stage 7: Middle Adulthood­ the challenge of making a difference (vs self­absorption) o Challenge of middle age is contributing to lives of others in the family, at work, and in  larger world  Stage 8: Old Age­ the challenge of integrity (vs despair) o As end of life approaches, people hope to look back on what they have accomplished  with a sense of integrity & satisfaction Agents of Socialization  Nurture in early childhood: whether children learn to see themselves as strong/weak,  smart/stupid, loved/tolerated depends largely on quality of surroundings provided by parents &  other caregivers  Race & class: children learn to recognize that their family’s social standing affects how others  see them & in time how they come to see themselves o Lower­class parents more likely to want “obedience” as key trait for child o Upper­class parents more likely to praise children who can “think for themselves”  Cultural capital: advances learning & creates a sense of confidence in children (typically upper­ class) that they will succeed later in life  The school: schools enlarge children’s social world & helps them understand the importance of  factors such as race & social position o Gender: schools join with families in socializing children into gender roles o What children learn: hidden curriculum­ many things taught by schools informally  ex) spelling bees teaches there are winners & losers  The peer group: a social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in  common o Among peers children learn how to form relationships on their own & their groups offer  the chance to discuss interests that adults may not share with their children  (clothing/popular music) or permit (drugs & sex) o Peers may affect short­term interests but parents have greater influence on long­term  goals   Anticipatory socialization:  learning that helps a person achieve a desired position  The mass media: the means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience o The extent of mass media exposure: african american children reported watching tv more  than both white & hispanic children o Extensive tv viewing takes time away from interactions with parents & peers as well as  exercise & other activities more likely to promote personal development & good health o Television & politics: while there is wide range of political opinion in media doesn’t  mean average person experiences very much diversity­ when it comes to mass  media→liberals & conservatives inhabit different worlds by sticking close to their  specific outlets that present viewpoints which they already agree with   Television & violence: media increases our exposure to diverse cultures & provokes discussion  of current issue  Socialization not just a simple matter of learning but also complex balancing act Socialization & the Life Course  Childhood: children in mostly africa & asia expected to work in in factories/ agriculture  (physical labor) while in US parents try hard to preserve childhood & youth for their children a   Adolescence: a time of social contradictions; when people are no longer children but not yet  adults  Adulthood: the time when most of life’s accomplishments take place, including pursuing a  career & raising a family o Early adulthood: early adulthood­40 years old, young adults learn to manage day to day  affairs for themselves o Middle adulthood: ages 40­65, people sense that their life circumstances pretty well set & become more aware of fragility of health  Old age: the latest years of adulthood & the final stage of life (begins around mid 60s)    Gerontology : the study of aging and the elderly (both physical & social dimensions) o Aging & biology: sensory abilities­ taste, sight, touch, smell, and especially hearing­  becomes less sharp with age o Aging and culture: culture shapes how we understand growing old   Gerontocracy : a form of social organization in which the elderly have the ost  wealth, power, and prestige  Ageism: prejudice & discrimination against older people o Aging and income: although seniors continue to lag behind younger adults in income,  recent decades have provided greater gains for them compared to younger adults  Death & Dying: Elizabeth Kübler­Ross (1969): described death as orderly transition involving  five distinct stages: 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Negotiation 4. Resignation 5. Acceptance  The Life­Course: Patterns & Variations: o Although each stage of life linked to biological process of aging, life course is largely a  social construction o In any society the stages of life course present certain problems & transitions that involve learning something new & unlearning familiar routines o  Cohort : a category of people with something in common, usually their age Resocialization: Total Institutions  Total institution: a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society & manipulated by  an administrative staff   Resocialization : radically changing an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling the  environment 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.