New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Criminology Week 2 Notes

by: Melanie Kopriva

Criminology Week 2 Notes Soci 288

Marketplace > Northern Illinois University > Sociology > Soci 288 > Criminology Week 2 Notes
Melanie Kopriva
GPA 3.4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes go over the criteria of causality, the defenses to criminal liability, and the three ways of measuring crime
Michael Ezell
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Criminology

Popular in Sociology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Kopriva on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soci 288 at Northern Illinois University taught by Michael Ezell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Northern Illinois University.


Reviews for Criminology Week 2 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/25/16
Defenses to Criminal Liability  Justification: Act was allowed o No actus reus  Duress – there was human force  E.g. someone holding you hostage unless you do something  Necessity- non-human force  E.g. need to break in because of bad weather that could be harmful  Self-defense  Excuse: Lacking criminal intent o No mens rea  Entrapment- police plant the criminal behavior in your mind  Insanity- don’t know the difference between right and wrong behavior  Usually unsuccessful  If successful, the convicted usually has to go to a mental institution  Lacking capacity- lack mental ability to engage in criminal behavior  Two types of people- juveniles and people with intellectual disabilities  Accident- didn’t mean to commit criminal behavior  Ignorance (mistake of fact)- don’t know you’re engaging in criminal behavior(s) Criteria of Causality  The more or less likely you have something, the more or less likely for you to commit crime  Three main criteria used in determining crime o Association not due to chance  X and Y are associated with each other  Empirical association o Causal/Temporal Order *  X had to precede Y  Cross-sectional vs longitudinal  Cross-sectional- collect all data at the same time  Longitudinal- follow same people over time o Takes more time and money than cross-sectional o Lack of spurious association*  Get rid of other possible explanations  Measure “control variables”  Employ multivariate statistical methods (observational) o * Causes big problems for criminology because it’s hard to control for factors occurring Research Methods  Three common research methodologies in Criminology o Randomized experiments  E.g. Minneapolis domestic violence  Main strength: Causal statements  Main weakness: Generalizability, unethical/impossible, artificial o Probability-based observational surveys  E.g. Monitoring the future  Most commonly used  Main strength: Generalizability  Main weakness: Criteria of causality, superficial data o Qualitative data  E.g. Life in the Gang  Main strength: Depth/richness  Main weakness: Criteria of causality, generalizability, observer effects Three Ways of Measuring Crime  Official data o What people report being done to them o “Comes known to the police” o Data from police, courts, and correction authorities  FBI UCR (Unified Crime Reports)  Part I: 8 o More data collected o More serious offenses o Homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larsony theft, motor vehicle theft, arson o Strengths  National coverage  Long-term trends  Time, age, race, regions, gender, urban/rural  Biased toward serious crimes and serious offenders o Weaknesses  Underestimates volume  Crimes have to be reported to the police  Police do NOT catch offender in most crimes they know about  Suspected offender are often NOT ARRESTED (discretion)  Police sometimes deliberately distort data (“reclassify”)  Counting/hierarchy rule  Except in arson, theft and motor vehicle crime  NIBRS  Changes in norms, police priorities, and police discretion  Trends across time may reflect these changes  No white collar crimes o Arrest/conviction/incarceration data  Self-report offending o Strengths  No filtering by the public/police  “Dark figure” of crime  Biased toward less serious/victimless crimes and less serious offenders o Weaknesses  Difficult to estimate trends because:  Few nation-wide surveys  Few long-term surveys  Underestimates serious crime  Respondents sometimes underreport serious crime  Measures often focus on minor offenses  Undersamples serious criminals  Usually only juveniles  Self-report victimization o Strengths  No filtering by public/police  “Dark figure” of crime  NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey): trends since 1973  Time  Age  Gender  Race  Urban/rural o Weaknesses  Focus on only a few violent and property crimes  No crimes against businesses  No white collar crimes  Undersamples groups with high rates of victimization  Some people may not report some victimizations (e.g. abuse)  Victim often does not see offender (e.g. property crimes)  Other measurement issues o Prevalence and incidence  Prevalence: Percent of a group committing a crime at least once  Incidence: Average (mean) rate of commission o Numbers vs rates  Rates = standardized  For example: in 1991, there were 3859 homicides in California, and 720 in Louisiana.  CA rate is 12.7 per 100000  LA rate is 16.9 per 100000


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.