Criminology Week 3 Notes
Criminology Week 3 Notes Soci 288
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Kopriva on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soci 288 at Northern Illinois University taught by Michael Ezell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Part I and Part II Crimes Part I Crimes o More serious o Violent crimes Homicide, burglary o Uses official data Part II Crimes o Less serious Aggravated assault Theft o Usually uses self-reported data Aggravated assault: intent to cause someone bodily harm Simple assault: no intent to cause someone bodily harm There are higher crime rates in summer months vs winter months o People are outside more o Leaving the house o More time to spend with friends rather than with parents Four regions: o Northeast o South Highest crime rates o Midwest o West Social Patterning of Crime Social Patterning of Crime o MSA: Highly densely populated urban areas o Age o Gender o Social class o Race Disproportionality o Disproportionality: amount of crime the group is responsible for relevant to the size of the group Gender and Crime o Prevalence: Higher for males males are more likely to report that they did something o Incidence: Higher for “average male” males are more likely to do it more frequently o Larger differences for more serious crimes o More male chronic (repeat) offenders o Arrest rate differences becoming “smaller” (still large) Changes in police arrest discretion Social Class and Crime o Early studies (before 60s) Arrest data Social class appeared strongly related Mostly bivariate “Fact” in old criminology theories o Early self-report studies (60s-70s) No relationship: new “fact” Minor acts Non-representative, homogenous samples Recorded in schools Chronic offenders missing o Later self-report studies (80s and after) Better measures and samples Findings Less serious: no difference More serious: lower class more likely o More “high-rate” chronic offenders Race and Crime o Virtually identical findings to social class (see previous notes) o Is it race? Or…? Social class differences explain some but not all What else accounts for it? Difficult to compare “poor whites” to “poor blacks” Few studies fully take “community context” into account Best studies: most black and white “differences” are entirely due to community and poverty/social class differences What about white-collar crimes? Social Patterning of Victimization o Victims and offenders (violent) – Criminal Victimization “Anti-Social Homophily” o Crime victimization Victimization Structural factors: Concern the social and physical characteristics of location where people live o Population density Higher density means higher victimization rates o Neighborhood structures “Concentrated disadvantage” means higher victimization rates Individual characteristics o Age “Younger but older” – people 15-25; 15;35 have a higher rate
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