Psychology 201 week 1-5 notes
Psychology 201 week 1-5 notes Psy 201
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mukesh Ghimire on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 201 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Sufka in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
9/25/2016 Evernote Export What is Psychology: Goals and Historical trends therapists study of behavior Sigmund Freud (Titans:) I. Pavlov represents study of classical condition and psychoanalysis above practice makes only 2% systematic (scientific) study of behavior and mental processes of organisms animals behave in interesting and complex ways: comparative psychology compares mental ability among organism HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY : TIMELINE 1879 W. Wundt is the founder of psychology asked a simple research question about mental life in human branch of psychology he founded is structuralism (brand) wanted to study structure of sensation(mental life) not really a scientific method he used introspection method to research to understand human experience we need to figure out unique elemental parts (sensory systems) studying the structure of mental elements 1890s structuralism suffered William James Method: Functionalism due to progress in biology(evolution) structuralism was replaced by functionalism Functional advantages 1920s Functionalism killed B.F. Skinner & J. Watson Method: Behaviorism Physics, Biology and chem progresses caused it Scientific studies other science measured and quantified and psychology didn't start studying things we can measure and observe hunger: quantify calorie study serious behavior things Sigmund Freud : PSYCHOANALYSIS (1880s1920s) a side note, mostly in Europe. not a major player at his original place 196070s COGNITIVE REVOLUTION & Modern Clinical file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/PSY%20201_1.html 1/5 9/25/2016 Evernote Export Cognitive psy: information processing and mental stuffs we can study consciousness Business of thinking along with the behavior (functionalism: why do we do the things we do) Modern clinical: testing therapy Q. what makes some fields a science and other not? A. its how you do the business of research using the scientific method!! psy didn't have scientific method of stuyding before, all scientists were philosophers all science study natural phenomenon all the fields are connected so is psychology biology became so interesting and competitive NECESSITY of Psychology Folk Psychology (common sense) versus Psychological Science Opposites attract we use only 1015% of our brains OR Absence makes the heart grow fonder VS out of sight out of mind Two heads are better than one VS. Too many cooks spoil the broth WHO are we in Psychology? Experimental Applied Biological Clinical/Counseling Cognitive (:information processing) School Social Forensic Developmental (context: Development, from birth to Human Factors (design products that are intuitive and death, changes in thinking & behavior) friendly; work in businesses) Health (connection betwn pre diabetic and cognitive health) Industrial/Organizational Goals of (Psychological) Sciences: Description: objective accurate account for behavior under study. Explanation: why does behavior occur? Prediction: examine current behavior to predict future behavior Control: influence behavior in more adaptive ways file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/PSY%20201_1.html 2/5 9/25/2016 Evernote Export Application: how can we improve the quality of life Psychological Science RESEARCH Questions Theory Hypothesis/Question: RESEARCH QUESTION WHICH TAKES YOU TO THE UNKNOWN Operationalization Design of study Getting data Analysis of data Interpretation of data Implications for theory comprehensive representation of a phenomenon Theory occupies highest level of thinking in science THEORY MUST: FIT KNOWN FACTS(EVIDENCE) predict discoveries be falsifiable be more parsimonious(over others) Falsifiable: should be described in a way that allows the author to be falsified Sigmund frued's statements couldn't be falsified in europe, due to lack of tech. start simple, then add evidence, try to falsify and let the theory become bigger with explanation A THEORY OF SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER Fits known facts: cases of winter depression are unique due to sunlight restriction deficiency in vitamin D Predicts new discoveries most cases appear in far latitudes Is Falsifiable: light therapy is beneficial highly sensative to sunlight exposure Is parsimonious: Sunlight is known to alter brain chemistry that regulates mood THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD ID the problem you want to study. set up a cause and effect relationship among variables(hypothesis) (cause and effect) Design and carry out a TRUE experiment (method) file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/PSY%20201_1.html 3/5 9/25/2016 Evernote Export manipulate one variable(independent) and measure another(dependent) establishes casual connection Determine the truth of the findings statistical data analyses(psy 202) Disseminate interpretations publish in journals/ present at conferences Science and the Experimental Method Hypothesis testing to establish causal connections. Why is it important? Golberger's study.... Common concerns/worries in experimentation operational definitions(that accurately and objectively describe the works) Science and Experimental Method Common concerns/worries in experimentation Operational definitions : has to be clear and objective such that there is no bias so that anyone can redo the experiment. define independent and dependent variables. Hamilton depression inventory(HAMD) to measure scale of depression. Random sampling and assignments to groups. everybody has an equal chance to be selected in the study. experimental vs control group control group: for comparison, placebo, study any way experimental: fixed way. certain classes of antidepressants cause bone problems: research shows. not a true random sample: study of rapidly aging people Demand Characteristics: situation where someone participating in study know that they are a part of study. They may inadvertently influence the study. blind (don't know the experimental conditions(hypothesis, research questions): know that they are in study but doesn't know anything else) vs double blind ( neither the participants nor the researchers know which participants belong to the control group, nor the test group) researchers knowing hypothesis may influence the results: they may see what is anticipated. ASTROLOGICAL SCIENCE The study of movements and relative positions of celestial bodies that influence human psychology and the natural world. Pseudo science WARNING SIGNS OF PSEUDOSCIENCE! file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/PSY%20201_1.html 4/5 9/25/2016 Evernote Export impressive scientific jargon(psycho-babble) and exaggerated claims ad hocs (loop holes) to explain negative findings after the fact explanation uses anecdotes as evidence do not connect to existing science avoids objective peer review experts in the field look at the data before publishing the work. Other Methods of Study in Psychology Case Histories: thorough descriptions of a single person with a rare condition Mr. H.M. has changed the landscape of how we think about learning. one of the pioneering icons of psychology. is a great case history Naturalistic Observation: Careful documentation of behavior in its natural setting. Jane Goodall went to live with primates in order to study them in their natural habitat Survey studies: questionnaires of beliefs, attitudes, behavior, etc. Correlational studies: it CANNOT prove that one variable causes a change in another. not a true experiment. examine relationship between two or more variables. correlation coefficient (r): quantifying relationships between variables stats that measure of strength and direction of that relationship range: -1.0 through zero up to +1.0 a perfect correlation: when the r is +1 eg. annual salary is correlated with monthly salary Interpreting Correlational Data Do not confuse correlation with causation autism and vaccines. causal claims require an experiment file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/PSY%20201_1.html 5/5 9/25/2016 Evernote Export Neurons and Behavior Ethics of Research Two university committees deal with ethics of research: one for human and other for animals Human Subject (IRB) and Animal Subject (IACUC) Research IRB: Your Rights: informed consent, confidentiality, right to withdraw, debriefing IACUC: ensures Animal Protection: excellent and humane care, minimize pain and distress, consider alternatives and avoid unnecessary duplication : do something new What is Biopsychology? The scientific study of behavior in terms of biological factors such as electrical and chemical activities in the nervous system, the effects of hormones and drugs, genetics, and evolutionary pressures. CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Neurons: basic signaling cells in the nervous system. function to receive, store, and transmit information. Glia or glial cells: glued onto a part of a neuron. perform many supportive tasks STRUCTURES OF THE NEURON Dendrites: receive signals cell body: summation of signals. Axon: transmission of signals over some distance terminal buttons: storehouse for chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) other key terms myelin : insulator (glial cells form myelin) MS: Multiple Sclerosis: demyelinization disease: immune system attacks myelin cells. synapse: tiny gap between dendrite and terminal buttons. neurotransmitters: receptors : "key" . Neural Communication Within cell it is electrical (AKA: action potential) at rest, neurons are polarized (70 mv) during AP a release of stored energy Na+ and K+ movement. AP(action potential) travels down to terminal button. Between Cells Signal is chemical NT(NeuroTransmitters) released, crosses synapses and binds to receptor effect is excitation or inhibition file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/Evernote.enex.html 1/3 9/25/2016 Evernote Export MAJOR NEUROTRANSMITTERS NTs Function Disorder Acetylcholine arousal & memory Alzheimer's Dopamine movement & reward Schizophrenia & Addiction Serotonin emotion & sleep OCD(Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) Glutamate Learning & memory Stroke DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Central NS Peripheral NS Somatic ( Body movement and receive body sensation, soma = body) Autonomic Sympathetic (fight or flight arousal) Parasympathetic (rest and digest) EEG Electroencephalogram and MEG: Magnetoencephalogram: PET: Positron emission tomography MRI & fMRI: magnetic resonance imaging fMRI: functional magnetic resonance imaging CNS DIVISIONS Spinal Cord Brain Hindbrain medulla(vital living functions, like regulating body temperature, blood pressure, respiratory centers) and pons (triggers sleep cycles, when pons is highly active everything else shuts down. Midbrain Forebrain: complex psychological processess thalamus(complex sensory relay station, might be responsible for core of consciousness: rythmic firing), hypothalamus (feeding, fighting, fleeing and sexual behavior), limbic system (emotion, complex structures, alteration of limbic system alters emotion), hippocampus (essential area for learning and memory and its retrieval), etc cerebral cortex ( wrinkled to take huge surface area, 2 hemispheres left and right each has 4 lobes; Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal lobe) core structure for processing languaage : left hemisphere NEGLECT SYNDROME damage to right hemisphere at parietal/occipital junction neglecting information in the left. don't process on the left side file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/Evernote.enex.html 2/3 9/25/2016 Evernote Export Phantom Sensation: Perception of a missing limb plasticity of the cortex loss of parts causes the link to develop further. neurons sprout new terminals BIOPSYCHOLOGY & the NATURE of CONSCIOUSNESS two major views: Monism: consciousness is the brain Dualism: consciousness is nonphysical, brain (physical) and consciousness (nonphyscial) are separate things Key Terms in PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY study of drugs acting on your nervous system to change behavioral and mental processes psychotropic drugs: drugs acting on the nervous system. therapeutic vs. illicit/recreational increase/decrease neurotransmitter. Physical Dependence: change in body's normal functioning due to repeated use. Withdrawal syndrome: if it is seen after not taking drugs, then you are addicted to it. Psychological dependence: cravings, obsessions, Tolerance: the diminished sensitivity to a drug given repeated use, dose escalation. The Brain Reward Center Olds & Milner (1954) trying to teach rats to run through mazes studying brain stimulation in rats self stimulation rates > 5000/hr! dopanime & nucleus accumbens SIGNS of Drug Dependence/Addiction Compulsive use Tendency to escalate dosage (overcoming tolerance) Signs of dependence (Psych and Physiol) impairments in personal life Factors in a Drug's Abuse Potential Cost and availability onset of action Magnitude of pleasurable effects social consequences of use file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/Evernote.enex.html 3/3 9/25/2016 Evernote Export What is Learning? Different forms of learning. A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. In Psychology Learning requires some sort of change in behavior. natural instinct is not learning. The Rise of Behaviorism Rejected Structuralism/Functionalism Must study observable and measurable behaviors Assumptions: behavior has causes, thus psychological "laws" both internal and external environment affect behavior mental explanations are useless What is Classical Conditioning? An association between two events or stimuli such that one predicts the occurrence of the other. "Psychological secretions" Pavlov's experiment on dog's salivation Key Terms in CC Pavlov's experiment example: Unconditioned Stimulus (any biologically relevant event)Food Unconditioned Response drooling Conditioned stimulus (things that we learn) (any stimulus thats neutral, but when appropriately associated with bell unconditioned stimulus can lead to a response) Conditioned Response drooling Many strong emotional experiences are CLASSICALLY CONDITIONED responses. Pop quiz example Unconditioned Stimulus Pop Quiz Unconditioned Response anxiety Conditioned Stimulus call for "blank sheet of paper" Conditioned Response anxiety file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/Evernote.enex.html 1/3 9/25/2016 Evernote Export KEY CONCEPTS IN CC Acquisition : pairing of two stimuli (learning phase) Generalization/Discrimination Extinction: unlearned the CC response Spontaneous Recovery WHAT gets learned in classical conditioning? Contiguity (Pavlov's perspective) vs Contingency (Research & Wagner) Debate Paradigms in CC ForwardDelay Procedure ForwardTrace Procedure: Difficult if time difference is larger between CS and UCS Backwards Procedure: conditioning near impossible: prediction matters! Bed Wetting UCS = bell UCR = waking CS = full baldder CR = waking up WHAT IS OPERANT Conditioning? A change in behavior due to the consequences operating on that behavior. Thorndike's law of effect Responses leading to reward strengthened/increase in frequency; others with no effect decrease in frequency. file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/Evernote.enex.html 2/3 9/25/2016 Evernote Export CONCEPTS OF REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT Increase (Rs) vs decreased (Ps) response likelihood/probability. Primary vs secondary reinforcers Primary: biological needs Secondary: any other Rs & Ps not same for everyone. what one may find reinforcing, other may not find it so. Operant Conditioning Paradigms Four ways to change behavior through rewards and punishers. Changes in Behavior Stimulus Increase Decrease (+) Positive Reinforcement Positive Punishment presented ()Negative Reinforcement Negative Punishment removed Common Examples of OC Xbox time for good grades: Positive Reinforcement taking away car for parking tickets: negative punishment file:///C:/Users/cipher/Desktop/Evernote.enex.html 3/3
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