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Week 4 Notes

by: Katlyn Palka

Week 4 Notes HTH 231

Katlyn Palka

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Notes from Monday and Wednesday. There was no class on Friday
Population Health Determinants
Timothy Howley
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Palka on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HTH 231 at James Madison University taught by Timothy Howley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Population Health Determinants in Health science at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 09/25/16
9/19/16 Angelina Jolie’s Op Ed: ● Super expensive to test for the gene: cost more than $3000 to test ○ May not be covered by insurance ○ Really expensive because of the science and technology to do the testing. There is no  regulation of cost on after they have it down from the experimental phase, then they want to  make money.  ● She wrote the article in a very empowering way. She wanted to share her story to show women  that they have the option. She was in control of her own life.  ● Benefits: chance of getting breast cancer was significantly reduced. Went from 87% to about  5%  ● Drawbacks: overall cost it is really expensive she still has a small chance of getting breast  cancer, people that have access to this are people of high income and the lower income  population doesn’t have access to it (a widening health disparity gap) ● This is an upstream approach. Going more towards the roots of the issue. Lowering her  chances before her situation gets too far Biology and Genetics  ● Biology ○ Biological sex (male/female) ■ Ovarian cancer (women only), prostate cancer (men), breast cancer (higher in women but still  possible in men) ○ Chromosomes (not passed down through genes) ■ Down Syndrome ■ Turner Syndrome  ● Genetics ○ Inheritance ■ A gene that can be passed down ■ Ex. eye color ○ Genetic predisposition ■ More complicated, is a combination of variables ■ The environment plays a role along with the genes that you have ■ Ex. if you have a family member that is alcohol dependent (family history) then you have a  predisposition of becoming alcohol dependent but it doesn’t mean that you will  ○ Family History ■ Plays a role in both inheritance and genetic predisposition Alzheimer’s Video ● They are trying to look at genetics when talking about disease causation ○ A build up of mutated genes can cause the disease  ● When there is no family history a person has a 10% risk of getting Alzheimer’s  ● When there is a family history increases your risks to 20% ● Two types of Alzheimer’s (they share similar brain abnormalities) ○ Early­onset (inherited) ■ Less common (5% of cases) ■ 50/50 chance of getting the disease from birth ■ There is a mutation in the amyloid gene ● There is an overproduction of beta­amyloid ● Finding the mutation in the amyloid gene allowed for changes in medicine ■ Onset is usually age 40­60 ○ Late­onset ■ More common than early­onset Alzheimer’s  ■ Cause: environmental and genetic predispositions ■ Age: 65 or older  ■ Susceptibility gene (Apoe) ● The more susceptibility genes that you have the higher risk you have for Alzheimer’s  ● Everyone has the Apoe gene just for some people it is mutated then you have a higher risk 9/21/16 ● One word that captured my thoughts of the video ○ Unfair ● “Economic policy is health policy” ­ David Williams ○ How would some of the following policies impact health disparities? (These policies could  alleviate some stress) ○ Guaranteed paid vacation ● Paid vacation exists in the U.S., however it is the higher income population not the poorer  population  ● Nothing is guaranteed in the U.S. ○ Other industrialized countries have guaranteed paid vacation  ■ Guaranteed sick leave (paid) ● Focus on getting better instead of adding stress to your body. Overall you can provide better  work when you are not sick. ● There is no guaranteed sick leave in the U.S.  ○ Other industrialized countries have guaranteed sick leave  ■ Increased minimum wage ● $7.25 in Virginia ● Increasing it to $15/hour can increase the economy (more money means more money to spend) ■ Paid parental leave (maternity/paternity) ● Putting a child in daycare at an early age can affect the child later on ● Provide more time for nurturing/breastfeeding for the child ● Infant mortality rates could possibly go down ■ Other policies ● Scholarships to increase educational values ● Universal healthcare  ● More mixed income schools  ○ Would allow for students to all have similar opportunities ● High demand/low control job and stressful home situation (Corey Anderson) ○ Very stressful job (floor technician) ■ He would get called from one task to the next and was always going but didn’t have control over the situation because he needed to complete his job ○ Home situation ■ Don’t have the opportunity to put money away in savings ■ Makes it difficult to make ends meet ■ Lived in a violent neighborhood ● Jim Taylor: how does his wealth, power and status translate into better health? ○ Lived in a safe neighborhood ■ Was able to run throughout it with his dogs and exercise ■ Has a stressful job as a CEO, but he has a lot of control over his job ■ Has more money so he would be able to have the best of the best whether it’s food or gym  memberships ● The lives of the families run in a cycle ○ If their parents don’t go to college they are more likely to not go to college and continue to live in a more impoverished area  ○ If families are more well off, they are more likely to have more opportunities to go to college and  have more opportunities in life in general ● Stress ○ Everyone experiences stress, but people of different incomes may experience different stress ■ It can impact health by increasing blood pressure, increasing risk of heart disease, increasing  risk of mental sickness


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