Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes EXS214
Popular in Care, Treatment, and Prevention of Athletic Injuries
Popular in Athletic Training
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXS214 at Grand Canyon University taught by Professor Silvey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Care, Treatment, and Prevention of Athletic Injuries in Athletic Training at Grand Canyon University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
EXS 214: Week 2- Legal Considerations o Liability o Negligence - Standard of reasonable care Compared to a competent individual in the profession Scope of Practice Practice of athletic training normally tried under tort law o Tort – a civil wrong done to an individual where by the injured party seeks a remedy for damages Omission- fails to perform legal duty Commission- acts that is not their duty to perform Negligence o Failure to provide duty of care o Participants are aware and assume risk of play; don’t agree to you screwing up o Negligent torts can result from: Malfeasance (commission) Act that is not their responsibility to perform Misfeasance Act that is their responsibility Wrong procedure/ improper manner Nonfeasance (omission) Fails to perform legal duty Criteria required to prove negligence Duty Breach of duty Harm result of breach duty Sovereign Immunity Government or employees cannot be held negligent Failure to Warn o Participants must be informed that risk for injury exists and understand the nature of that risk Foreseeability of Harm o Recognizing a potential danger and removing the danger before an injury occurs Assumption of Risk o Individual acknowledges understanding of the risk to their participation in the activity and voluntarily chooses to participate, assuming all risks of injury or even death due to their participation ‘ Informed consent o Injured party has been reasonably inf o ormed of needed treatment, possible alternative treatment, and advantages and disadvantages of each course for action o Battery – any unpermitted contact with another individual without consent o Must ask for consent to look at an injury Refusing help o Individuals have the right to refuse treatment o Exception: increased risk for further injury Product liability o Implied warranty- manufacturers have a duty of care to design, manufacture and package safe equipment that will not cause injury to an individual when equipment is used as intended Football: helmet fitted and worn correctly will protect head and brain from certain injuries o Expressed warranty – written guarantee that product is safe o Strict liability – manufacturer is liable for any defective/hazardous equipment that threatens individual safety o National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE)- establish minimum standards for helmets; alteration or modification to any protective equipment; may negate manufacture warranty Confidentiality o Right to privacy Good Samaritan Laws o Conditions vary from state to state, but immunity generally applies only when emergency first aider Acts during an emergency Acts in good faith Acts without expected compensation Is not guilty of misconduct or gross negligence o Comparative Negligence Relative degree of negligence Damages awarded on a proportionate basis Medical Records o What are the components of a medical record? Any notes about the athlete o What is documented? Anything you want to prove that you did o Who’s responsible? Anyone who carries out the procedure o Maintaining confidentiality HIPAA FERPA Release of medical records Parents and guardians of minors re allowed to access these Electronic vs paper records Preparticipation Exam -PPE o To ensure the health and safety of a physically active individual o Focus- dependent on: Specific age group Intended sport/ activity o Exam format- Primary care physician Advantages: familiarity, relationship, privacy Disadvantages: $$, time commitment of MD Group or station format Advantages: number of professionals involved, less $$, time efficient Disadvantages: organization demands, decreased privacy, follow-up difficulty, communication problems Timing of the exam- 6 weeks prior- permits time to: o Correct minor problems o Refer medical problems to specialist Frequency- Entry level exam followed by a limited annual re-evaluation Entry level exam at each level of participation Medical History o Comprehensive History- General medical Orthopedic Supplemental form for females Physical Examination o Not intended to be all-encompassing, it is intended to focus on body systems of most concern relative to participant’s sport/ activity o Vital sign Establishes baseline physiologic parameters and vital signs o General Medical Problems Past surgery or hospitalization Medications (including OTC) Use of alcohol, tobacco, ergogenic aids o Cardiovascular exam Auscultation of heart sounds Check for cardiac abnormalities History of loss of consciousness, syncope, dizziness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, and chest pain during or after examination o Pulmonary Exam Auscultate for breath sounds History of coughing or breathing difficulty Ear, nose, and mouth also be checked o Musculoskeletal Exam History of previous injury, including: Nature of injury When it occurred Who evaluated it Duration of treatment and rehab Use of special protective equipment Physical exam (refer to field strategy 2.3) o Neurological Exam History of past head injury, loss of consciousness, amnesia, or seizures Exam: pupillary examination and reaction to light, cranial nerve assessment, motor-sensory exam, deep tendon reflex testing o Eye Examination Visual acuity Peripheral vision and depth perception Nystagmus- involuntary movement of the eyes Pupil size o Dental Examination Determine number of teeth and last visit to dentist Exam: gum condition and presence of cavities, dental appliances o Gastrointestinal exam Digestive system, eating habits, and nutrition History of heart burn, indigestion, diarrhea, or constipation o Genitourinary exam- Kidney and genitourinary organs o Dermatologic exam Identify contagious lesions, skin infections Other lesions (e.g. warts, acne) o Exam for heart disorders Environment related- history of cramping, syncope, exhaustion, or heart stroke Use of medications o Laboratory tests Not recommended by AAP Required by some states Physical Fitness Profile o Identifies weakness that may: Hinder athletic performance or Predispose the athlete to injury o Establishes a baseline of data in the event an injury does occur Body Composition o Fat vs. lean tissue o More reliable for determining appropriate weight o Measures: hydrostatic weighting, skinfold measures o Athletes: 12-17% body fat Anthropometry o Determines individuals body type Maturation & growth o Growth spurts may play a role in certain injuries o Tanner scale- physical maturation Flexibility o The total ROM that occurs pain-free in each of the planes of motion o Measured with a goniometer, flexometer, or tape measure o Hypermobility, hypomobility Strength o Ability to produce force in one maximal resistance o Measures can involve isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic testing Power o Ability to produce force in a given time o Measures include: throwing a medicine ball Speed Agility o Ability to change directions rapidly when moving at a high rate of speed Balance o Body coordinated neuromuscular response to maintain a defined position of equilibrium Reaction time o Body ability to respond to Cardiovascular endurance o Ability to sustain submaximal exercise over an extended period Clearance for participation: o Physician determines the level of participation Will conditions increase risk of injury in an athlete? Can participation be allowed if medication, rehab or protective bracing or padding used? If clearance is denied for a particular sport, are there other sports or activities in which an individual can safely participate?
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