Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes EXS214
Popular in Care, Treatment, and Prevention of Athletic Injuries
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXS214 at Grand Canyon University taught by Professor Silvey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Care, Treatment, and Prevention of Athletic Injuries in Athletic Training at Grand Canyon University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
EXS 214: Week 3- Monday 3.1- Sign- definitive & obvious indicator Symptom- change indicating injury Define: o Sign- objective o Symptom- subjective Examples of each: o Sign- edema, effusion (inside the joint capsule), Ecchymosis, visible deformity, o Symptom- pain, nausea, headache, fever, tightness/stiff, hot Syndrome o A group of signs and symptoms that indicate a particular injury or disease Pathology o Structural and functional changes from injury Etiology o Cause of a disease Mechanism o Mechanical description of cause Diagnosis- specific condition o Differential diagnosis- could be a multitude of different injuries, don’t assume o Working diagnosis- not sure and will evaluate after time has passed Prognosis o Potential to be used for length of time What is needed in order to have a definitive diagnosis? o All aspects of the injury or illness must be considered Wednesday 3.2- The healing process o Inflammation o Fibroblastic repair Inflammation- vascular & cellular response to injury serving to localize injury Ultimately inflammation localized injury, mobilizes the body's defense system & prepares area for healing Response Cardinal signs of inflammation o Pain o Swelling o Heat o Redness o Loss of function/ ROM Fibroblastic repair o Rapid production of new cells o Debris removal o Temporary repair o Scar formation (Collagen synthesis) Maturation- Remodeling o Long term process o Reabsorption and realigning collagen o Scar maturation o 3 weeks to 2 years Factors affecting rate & extent of healing o Tissue type o Extent of damage o Blood supply o Infection & inflammation o Age o Nutrition o Fitness level o Steroids o Degrees of immobilization or mobilization o Amount of hemorrhage and edema o Humidity Treatment Signs of Inflammation o RICE o POLICE Protection Optimum Loading Ice Compression Elevation o Categorize Force Relative to Direction Axial Force that acts on the long axis of a structure Compression Axial load that produces a crushing or squeezing type force Tension Axial force in opposite direction; pulling or stretchin the tissues Shear Force parallel to a plane passing through an object Tends to cause sliding or displacement Bending Compression and tension Torsion Rotating force o Response to force Small load- elastic response Load is removed, material returns to its original shape Load reaching yield point-plastic response Load is removed, some amount of deformation remains Positive stress vs. Adverse stress o Wolff’s law Realignment or remodeling Abrasion- o Scraping away of layers of skin Blister o Accumulation of fluid between epidermis and dermis Skin bruises Lacerations o Irregular tear of the skin Avulsions o Complete separation of skin Punctures o Penetration of skin and underlying tissue Contusion- o Mechanism- compression o S/S Onset- acute Pain-localized Ecchymosis- if superficial Restrictions in ROM Swelling Associated nerve compression o Basis for rating of severity 1 -little or no restriction 2nd-noticeable reduction 3 -severe restriction o Concern- can lead to muscle strain or mitosis ossificans Strain o Stretch or tear of a muscle o Mechanism- tension force o Most common sites for tears: near the musculotendinous junction Classification of strains Tendonitis o Inflammation of tendon o Pain and swelling with tendon movement o Problems- repeated microtrauma Degenerative changes Tenosynovitis o Inflammation of synovial sheath o S&S Acute: rapid onset, crepitus, local swelling Chronic: thickened tendon, nodule formation in sheath Chronic Conditions- o Result of repeated irritation of tissues o Classification Stage 1: pain after activity only Stage 2: pain during activity, does not restrict Stage 3: pain during activity, restricts performance Stage 4: chronic unremitting pain, even at rest o Problem: low-grade inflammatory condition that results in collage reabsorption Sprain o Stretch or tear of ligament o MOI: tension force o Comprises the ability of a ligament to stabilize the joint Classification of sprain Dislocation/ Subluxation (comes out partially)- o Joint force is beyond normal limits o MOI- tension o S&S Loss of limb function Deformity Swelling Point tenderness o Problem of reoccurrence Due to overstretching of capsule to the extent that it will not return too normal; unstable joint Friday 3.3- Fractures- disruption of the continuity of the bone o Closed or open Type of fracture determined by: o Force applied o The health and maturity of bone at the time of injury Types of fractures o Simple, compound, depressed, transverse, comminuted, oblique, epiphyseal, spiral, greenstick, avulsion, impacted Stress fracture- o fracture results from repeated loading with lower magnitude forces o Can become worse over time Epiphyseal Injuries- o Injury to the growth plate could result in alteration in normal growth o Acute injury- Salter Harris Types I-V HOPS o History o Observation o Palpation o Special tests SOAP o Subjective o Objective o Assessment o Plan Hops SOAP o Subjective History o Objective Observation Palpation Special test o Assessment o Plan Terms: o Indications- S/S’s that lead to treatment o Contradictions- S/S’s that show a treatment should not be used Cryotherapy: o Decreases temperature o Reduce adverse effects during the inflammatory phase o Also used after inflammatory phase Anesthesia for exercise Decrease pain spasm cycle o ** physiological effects of cold Indications for cryotherapy: o Acute or chronic pin o Mm spasm/ guarding o Postsurgical pain or edema o Used with exercise to Facilitate mobilization Relieve pin Decrease mm spasm Contradictions of cryotherapy- o Decreased cold sensitivity o Cold allergy (urticarial) o Raynaud’s disease o Hypertension o Uncovered wounds Methods of application- o Ice pack o Ice massage (to treat shin splints) o Ice water immersion Whirlpool (50-60 F) o Vapocoolant o Cyrokinetics Alternating cryotherapy with exercise Skin Response to cold o When ice is applied, what do you feel? Cold sensation 0-3 min Mild burning 2-7 min Relative cutaneous anesthesia 5-12 min o Dependent upon temperature of cryotherapy Thermotherapy- o Indications Subacute or chronic injuries to decrease edema and ecchymosis o Contradictions Acute inflammation Open wounds Poor circulation or sensation Malignancy o Physiological effects of heat (see in book) Superficial heat o Moist het packs (Hydrocollator) Maintain heat Relaxation o Hydrotherapy Massaging action Caution with full body submersion o Paraffin bath Hands and wrists Foot and ankle o Contrast baths Chronic inflammatory conditions 10 min 105-110 water Alternate cold water 59-68 1 min- 4 min for 30 minutes Penetrating heat o Ultrasound o Oscillation/ vibration of molecules in tissue o Treat joint contractures, scar tissue, bursitis o Muscle spasm and pain o Treatment Often combined with electrical stimulation Requires coupling mechanism Slow circular strokes or painting method Phonophoresis- drug delivery o Contraindications for ultrasound Eyes, ears, brain, heart Spinal cord Reproductive organs Acute injury, Fx Epiphyseal plates Metal implants
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