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PSYC 101 Week 5 Notes

by: Madison Santy

PSYC 101 Week 5 Notes PSYC 101

Madison Santy
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These are the notes from Professor Jackson's PSYC 101 course from the lectures on Tuesday, Sept. 20 and Thursday, Sept. 22.
Introduction to Phychology
Russell E. Jackson
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Santy on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at University of Idaho taught by Russell E. Jackson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Phychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Idaho.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
September 20, 2016 Memory I: Study Strategies  1-2 hours/day , 5-6 hours/week of study time o Big Idea: Distributed Processing (distributing study time over long periods of time instead of cramming) o 1 hour/day for 10 days > 10 hours in one day o For one 3-4 credit hour class with a textbook  Bonus: these strategies work in any situation where you need to understand a lot of material. Use them widely. Timeline for Exam (steps will be explained in more detail later in lecture)  Attend class and take notes  2-3 weeks ahead of test: Read text  1.5-2 weeks ahead of test: Rewrite notes  1 week ahead of test: Read text again  3 days ahead of test: Clarify all questions you have Attending Lectures I  DO IT!!! o On time: When you walk into class late, you miss the first few minutes of the lecture, which requires your brain to play catch-up trying to figure out what you missed, resulting in you missing 10-15 minutes of the lecture. o Every class: This one’s obvious. Missing a class means you’re missing everything the professor says that’s not in the book but will be on the test. You can’t always trust a friend’s notes to be as comprehensive as you need. o Pay attention and take notes: Studies prove that people are not good at multi-tasking. We can only concentrate on one thing or the other, not both at once. The quality of attention goes way down for both of the things we’re trying to concentrate on. o Don’t leave early: You’ll end up missing more of the lecture in the last five minutes of class than any other five minute period of class. If a professor has fifteen minutes of lecture left and sees he/she only has five minutes left in class, they’ll speed through the last information of the lecture in order to finish.  Sit where you will get the most from the lecture o Our brain has a whole section devoted to recognizing other people. Not other animals or other objects, other people. So sitting in the front of the class eliminates the amount of distractions (people) between you and the professor. Also, this helps when you’re bored or tired because the professor is more likely to make eye contact with you (which wakes you up with the attention) when you’re sitting close to him/her.  Ask questions o Don’t allow anything unclear to get past you. You may not remember that you had a question about that topic after the lecture, resulting in a gap in your knowledge.  Record lectures (with permission from the professor) Attending Lecture II  Write what you see and hear o Lecture slides are only an outline of what the professor is saying, so writing down everything the professor says as well as what’s on the slides ensures that you’re not missing any information that may be on the test.  Don’t let note-taking method constrain the information that you record o Leave a margin on the left-hand side of your notes  Take notes on your notes o Use shorthand to take notes faster o Write your notes by hand the first time you hear the lecture, not by typing Studying Outside of Class  Big Idea: No multi-tasking, no distractions o We’re very bad at multi-tasking o There is one room in the world specifically designed to distract you: your room. o Also, don’t study….  With friends (hard to stay on topic and concentrated)  Around food  With music or TV playing  Around a phone that is on  While exercising  While sleeping (?) o Try a secluded section of the library, it’s designed to help you study  Context Dependent Memory o Study in places most similar to what the test environment will be like.  Similar size and amount of people.  Same time of day the test will be. Reading the Text I  Begin 2-2.5 weeks before the exam for 2-4 chapters  Big Idea: Context Matters o It’s easier to remember facts in their context than stand alone bits of information. For example, after watching a 30 minute TV show you can remember a thousand things about it. But after hearing the number of Pi for 30 minutes you won’t be able to remember very many of them in order.  Don’t underline, use flashcards, or highlight information. It eliminates the context of the information and makes facts harder to remember.  Read 1 chapter/day in one setting (you can take 5-10 minute breaks, but no more than 15 minutes)  Schedule: o Preview (2 minutes): Read the chapter review before even beginning to read the chapter. It allows your brain to know what’s going to happen at the end of the chapter, just like the author. o Read the chapter (1-1.5 hours): Read well enough to explain what information was on the page once you hit the page number. Go through the information in your head, and if you can’t remember what you read, read it again. Sometimes your brain blanks out while you’re reading and doesn’t absorb the information. o Review (2 minutes): Read the chapter review again to recap what you’ve just read. Studying Your Class Notes  Take GREAT notes (see Attending Lecture II)  Transfer notes into Word document o Rewrite everything, but make it…  Completely clear  Well organized o Put them in your own words and don’t use your shorthand o Rewrite 1 weeks’ worth of notes per day of studying o Goal: to recall the information you learned, not just recognize it. You can recognize something but not be able to answer questions about it. o Write out things you don’t understand very well or questions you have on a separate piece of paper. Reading the Text II  Read the text a second time  Read the same way you did the first time through: Preview, Read, Review  Know your knowledge will be closer to the author’s (because of the way you read the text) and, more importantly, the test writer’s.  Now take notes: o Things you don’t understand o Summaries…  One sentence for each chapter, section, heading, sub-heading. You’ll have an outline of the entire chapter in your own words.  Compare your summary to the author’s summary to see how accurate you were.  Try writing quiz questions. It’ll force you to think critically about the text you just read. Approximately Three Days Before Exam  Attend and review session the professor or TAs may offer  Study with other people in your class. You can do this earlier as well.  Clarify any unclear concepts Clarifying Unclear Concepts  How?: During class, during review session, while studying with other students, or during TA or professor office hours, over email, etc. Problem I: We are often unaware of that which we don’t know, so how could we ask a question about it? Problem II: Sometimes teachers don’t know how to teach  Teachers need zero experience or training to teach a college class. Solutions  Study partners can help you know what you don’t even know you don’t know. Don’t let them tell you the answers (and vice versa), make them find the answers on their own. Their/your brain will end up just waiting for an answer to be told to it instead of figuring the question out on its own.  Even if a professor is bad at explaining something, they do know the information. A good way to manipulate them into telling you the information is trying to explain it to them during office hours. If you just walk in there and begin explaining the concept instead of asking questions about it, the professor will correct your incorrect explanation and explain the whole concept to you, because they’re probably a nerd about the information they’re teaching and can’t let someone butcher it. September 22, 2016 Memory II  Before exam o Top Tip: Study well  Biggest predictor of exam score. Yes, a good night’s sleep and good breakfast help, but the quality of your studying is the most important. o Establish daily rhythms that peak at test time  Sleep (especially the waking up part): Waking up at the same time every day is VERY important. Also, bright sunlight to wake you up helps your brain understand that it needs to get going.  Hunger: Try to have the same amount of food in your stomach during the test as you do during class and during your study sessions.  Studying: Study at the same times every day, preferably during the same time of day the test will be. o This can take a week or two to become a rhythm.  Day of exam o Normal wake cycle  This is more important than how long you slept. Wake up at the same time every day. If you want to sleep in, wake up at the same time as usual for about 20 minutes, then go back to sleep. It’ll keep your wake cycle intact. o Diet  Weak advice: Complex carbs and proteins are good, they give you lasting energy. Too much fat is bad, it takes too much energy to break them down, which is energy taken away from your brain. Also, hydration. But not overhydration.  Strong advice: Don’t deviate from your normal caffeine consumption. Excess caffeine will increase your response to very simple, know-them-like-the-back-of- your-hand tasks, but can impair your recollection of material that you don’t know super well. So drink your caffeine at the same time, in the same amounts, each day. o Final study session (not cramming)  1-2 hours before the exam, but you must finish the study session ½ - 1 hour before the exam begins.  Review the material you’ve already studied, don’t try to learn new material. Your brain won’t be able to absorb it well enough to be used on the test.  Exam o Goal: Anxiety reduction  If you have a low level of anxiety, you don’t care about the outcome of the exam and probably did not study at all. Most people who did study are nervous for the exam because they care about their grade.  Stop all cognitively demanding tasks 30-60 minutes prior to the exam  Active distraction, especially at exam site, will up your anxiety. Everyone around you will be nervously and excitedly talking about the exam, which will make you nervous and excited as well. Bring something not related to school work to focus on before the test begins, like a novel or game on your phone, something you’re interested in that doesn’t take much brain power.  Position yourself away from distractions: Middle row, away from people walking past you or people turning their tests in. They’ll break your concentration.  Unless the exam is timed (where the amount of time you spend on the exam influences your score), don’t go fast. Take your time on each question.  Come prepared: Layered clothing, extra pencils and erasers, water, etc.  Rooms tend to be hotter at exam time than normal because people are agitated and their hearts are beating faster, which means they’re putting out more heat than normal.  Response strategy o Give yourself a review of the exam from the exam.  Make 3 passes over the exam before you begin: The more times you read the questions before answering them, the better you’ll do.  Change your interpretation of skipping questions: instead of feeling like a failure and like you don’t know any of the information, see skipping a question as an increase in chances that you’ll get that question right.  Changing answers helps more than it hurts: the common thought that going with your first instinct while answering a question is incorrect. Studies prove that changing your answer if you’re unsure can actually result in the correct answer.  Make sure to read the question again when you return to it. Your brain sometimes rewords things to make you think the question is asking something it’s not.  Make sure only to answer the question that’s being asked.  Cross out distractions and give the best answer for the question being asked. Some questions have multiple correct answers, but the professor is looking for the answer that answers that question in the best way.  After exam o Reward yourself! No matter how you think you did o Changing outcomes:  Score (1-10) how well you performed every study strategy listed in these notes in preparation for the exam.  Compare the grade that you received on the exam with the grade that you gave yourself on the study strategies  If you want to improve your grade, adjust accordingly:  If you want to improve your score: Double the effort of any study strategy you rated below a 7  If you’re happy with your score and want to reduce the effort you put in: Decrease your effort by 25% on anything above a 7


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