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Week 3 Notes

by: Hallie Hawkins

Week 3 Notes CHE105

Hallie Hawkins
Allen County Community College

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter Three
Introduction to Chemistry
Dr. Saha
Class Notes
Chemistry, General Chemistry
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Hawkins on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE105 at Allen County Community College taught by Dr. Saha in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chemistry in Chemistry at Allen County Community College.

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Date Created: 09/25/16
Chapter Three Matter ● Matter is the only substance that has mass and occupies volume ● Matter exists in one of three physical states ○ Solid ○ Liquid  ○ Gas Solid State ● In a solid, particles of matter are tightly packed together ● Solids have a definite, fixed shape ● Solids cannot be compressed and have a definite volume ● Solids have the least energy of the three states of matter Liquid State ● In a liquid, the particles of matter are loosely packed and are free to move past  and are free to move past one another ● Liquids have an indefinite shape and assume the shape of their container  ● Liquids cannot be compressed and have a definite volume ●  Liquids have less energy than gases, but more energy than solids Gaseous State ● In a gas, particles of matter are far apart and uniformly disturbed throughout the  container   ● Gases have an indefinite shape and assume the shape of their container  ● Gases can be compressed and have an indefinite volume ● Gases have the most energy of the three states of matter Changes in Physical States ● Most substances can exist as either a solid, a liquid, or a gas.  ● Water exists as a solid below 0 degrees C; as a liquid between 0 degrees C and  100 degrees C; and as a gas above 100 C  ● A substance can change physical states as the temperature changes  Solid ­­­­> Liquid Phase Changes ● When a solid changes to a liquid, the phase change is called melting ● A substance melts as the temperature increases ● When a liquid changes to a solid, the phase change is called freezing  ● A substance freezes as the temperature decreases Liquid ­­­­­­> Gas Phase Changes ● When a liquid changes to a gas, the phase change is called vaporizing ● A substance vaporizes as the temperature increases ● When a gas changes to a liquid, the phase change is called condensing  ●  A substance condenses as the temperature decreases Solid ­­­­­> Gas Phase Changes ● When a solid changes directly to a gas, the phase change is called sublimation ● A substance sublimes as the temperature increases Classifications of Matter  ● Matter can be divided into two classes: ○ Mixtures ○ Pure substances  ● Mixtures are composed of more than one substance and can be physically  separated into its component substances ● Pure substances are composed of only one substance and cannot be physically separated  Mixtures ● There are two types of mixtures ○ Heterogenous mixtures     ○ Homogenous mixtures  ● Heterogenous mixtures do not have uniform properties throughout  ○ Sand and water is a heterogenous mixture ● Homogenous mixtures have uniform properties throughout  ○ Salt water is a homogenous mixture  Pure Substances  ● There are two types of pure substances ○ Compounds ○ Elements  ● Compounds can be chemically separated into individual elements  ○ Water is a compound that can be separated into hydrogen and  oxygen  ● An element cannot be broken down further by chemical reactions  Occurrence of the Elements  ● There are over 100 elements that occur in nature; 81 of those elements are  stable  ● Only 10 elements account for more than 95% of the mass of Earth’s crust, water, and atmosphere  Elements in the Human Body ● Oxygen is the most common element in Earth’s crust and in the human body  ● While silicon is the second most abundant element in Earth’s crust, carbon is the  second most abundant in the body  Names of the Element  ● Each element has a unique name  ● Names have several origins  ○ Hydrogen is derived from Greek ○ Carbon is derived from Latin  ○ Scandium is named for Scandinavia  ○ Curium is named for Marie Curie  ○ Nobelium is named for Alfred Nobel  Element Symbols  ● Each element is abbreviated using a chemical symbol  ● The symbols are one or two letters long  ● Most of the time, the symbol is derived from the name of the element  ○ C is the symbol for carbon  ○ Cd is the symbol for cadmium  ● When a symbol has two letters, the first is capitalized and the second is  lowercase  Other Element Symbols  ● For some elements, the chemical symbol is derived from the original Latin name  Critical Thinking: Aluminium or Aluminium?   ● Most metals have names that end in ­ium  ● However element #13 is called aluminium in the USA and Canada, and  aluminium in the rest of the world  ● The different spelling is believed to be from a spelling error which caught on in  the USA and Canada  ● The official IUPAC name is “aluminium” however in 1993, IUPAC recognized the  alternate “aluminum” Types of Elements ● Elements can be divided into three classes  ○ Metals  ○ Nonmetals  ○ Semimetals or metalloids  ● Semimetals have properties midway between those of metals and nonmetals  Metal Properties  ● Metals are typically solids with high melting points and high densities and have a  bright, metallic luster  ● Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity ● Metals can be hammered into thin sheets and are said to be malleable  ● Metals can be drawn into fine wires and are said to be ductile   Nonmetal properties  ● Nonmetals typically have low melting points and low melting points and low  densities and have a dull appearance  ● Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity  ● Nonmetals are not malleable or ductile and crush into a powder when hammered ● Eleven non metals occur naturally in the gaseous state Periodic Table of the Elements  ● Each element is assigned a number to identify it. It is called the atomic number.  ● Hydrogen’s atomic number is 1; helium is 2; up to uranium, which is 92 ● The elements are arranged by atomic number on the periodic table  Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals ● Metals are on left side of the periodic table, nonmetals are on the right side, and  the semimetals are in between Physical States of the Elements  ● Shown are the physical states of the elements at 25 degrees C on the periodic  table Chemistry Connection: Elements 104 and Beyond  ● Scientists continue to discover new, heavier elements beyond the current  periodic table  ● Sometimes disagreements arise over naming of the new elements  ● IUPAC assigns new names to new elements  ● Until IUPAC assigns a name, the elements are names used Latin prefixes for the  numbers followed by the suffix ­ium ○ Hence, element 104 is unnilquadium  Law of Definite Composition ● The law of definite composition states that “Compound always contain the same  elements in a constant proportion by mass” ● Water is always 11.2% hydrogen and 88.8% oxygen by mass, no matter what its  source Chemical Formulas  ● A unit of matter composed of two or more nonmetal atoms is a molecule  ● A chemical formula is an expression of the number of atoms of each element in a compound  ● The chemical formula of H2SO4  Writing Chemical Formulas  ● The number of each type of atom in a molecule is indicated with a subscript in a  chemical formula  ● If there is only one atom of a certain type, no “1” is used ● A molecule of vitamin B3 has 6 carbon atoms, 6 hydrogen atoms, 2 nitrogen  atoms, and 1 oxygen atom. What is chemical formula? Interpreting Chemical Formulas  ● Some chemical formulas use parentheses to clarify atomic composition  Physical and Chemical Properties  ● A physical property is a characteristic of a pure substance that we can observe  without changing its composition  ● Physical properties include appearance, melting and boiling points, density, heat  and electrical conductivity, solubility, and a physical state ● A chemical property of a pure substance describes its chemical reactions with  other substances  Physical and Chemical Change  ● A physical change is a change where the chemical composition of the sample  does not change ● These include changes in physical state or shape of a pure substance  ● A chemical change is a chemical reaction ● The composition of the sample changes during a chemical change Evidence for Chemical Changes ● Gas release ● Light or release of heat energy  ● A permanent color change  Conservation of Mass ● Antoine Lavoisier found that the mass of reactants before a chemical change  was always equal to the mass of products after a chemical change  ● The is the law of conservation of mass ● Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction  Potential and Kinetic Energy ● Potential energy, PE, is stored energy; it results from position or composition  ● Kinetic energy, KE, is the energy matter has as a result of its motion  ● Energy can be converted between the two types  ● A boulder at the top of the mountain has potential energy; if you push it down the  mountain, the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy  KE, temperature, and physical state ● All substances have kinetic energy regardless of their physical state ● Solids have the lowest kinetic energy, and gases have the greatest kinetic  energy ● As you increase the temperature of a substance, its kinetic energy increases Law of Conservation of Energy ● Just like matter, energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted  from one form to another  ● This is the law of conservation of energy  ● There are six forms of energy ○ Heat ○ Light ○ Chemical  ○ Electrical  ○ Mechanical  ○ Nuclear       Chapter Summary ● Matter exists in three physical states: Solid ● Liquid Gas ● Substances can be converted between the three states. ● Substances can be mixtures or pure substances. Chapter Summary, Continued ● Pure substances can be either compounds or elements. ● The elements are arranged in the periodic table. ● Each element has a name and a one­ or two­letter symbol. ● Elements are classified as either metals, nonmetals, or semimetals. Chapter Summary, Continued ● A physical change is a change in physical state or shape. ● A chemical change is a change in the chemical composition of a substance. ● Both mass and energy are conserved in chemical and physical changes. 


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