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Child Psych Week 6

by: Katie Truppo

Child Psych Week 6 Psych 300

Katie Truppo
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

Motor development
Child Psychology
Sabrina Lynn Thurman (P)
Class Notes
Child, Psychology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 300 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Sabrina Lynn Thurman (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Date Created: 09/25/16
Chapter 5 Cont. September 19. 2016 Motor Skill Development Cont. Cross-Cultural Differences Rearing practices (ex: suspension, massages) Milestones taught Body Growth and Development Cephalocaudal Principle The region nearer the head mature more quickly than other areas (head down) Ex: Typical order motor milestones are achieved Proximodistal Development Organs and systems of the body near the middle tend to develop earlier than those near the periphery Ex: Gross motor skills develop before fine motor skills Nutrition and Psychological Factors Associated with Physical Development Nutrition and health Social-emotional factors 1 1/2 children in recent survey had viral strength and balance Relationship between movement, fidgeting, and attention Participation in Sports Not well researched 48 million children between 5-17 years old participate in organized sports of some type in the US (Ewing, Seefeldt, & Brown, 1996). Physical/motor development Socioemotional development The general stages of attainment Early childhood (ages 3–5): developgeneral fundamentalskills, practice locomotionskills (running& jumping), manipulation skills (catching& throwing),& balance. Childhood (ages 6–9): develop transitional skills, combine fundamental skills to perform more complex activities like jumping rope, riding a bicycle, or playing kickball. Skills become more fluid and automatic. Fine-tune form, control, accuracy, & coordination in running, hopping & skipping. More involved in games with balls. Late childhood (ages 10–12): the most noticeable changes in motor skills. Use combinations of fundamental and transitional skills to develop specific skills. Become aware of group activities & show a high degree of physical energy. Adolescence (ages 12–18): show specialization in specific sports. Physical Maturity Puberty Primary sex characteristics (within a person’s body) Sex chromosomes Anatomy of internal/external genitalia Rising hormonal levels (e.g., estrogen/testosterone) Menstruation and ejaculation begin Reproduction becomes possible Secondary sex characteristics (not directly related to reproduction) Girls Develop breasts More fat tissue “Hourglass” figures Boys Develop facial hair Chest broadens Voice deepens Body hair appears Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 13-19: Growth spurt Interest in dating and sex increase Abstract and scientific thinking appear Teens question “Who am I?” “What will I do with my life?” Initiation rites include confirmation, bar mitzvah, and graduation Socioeconomic conditions Better nutrition affects development and generations of development Anorexia affects teenage girl’s menstruation (impacted by fat in body) Sociocultural differences Where you are from impacts development (ex: nutrition) Psychological and social differences Girls mature earlier on average than boys Early maturing boys are more body satisfied Early maturing girls are less body satisfied Chapter 6 September 21, 2016 Outline Learning processes in infancy and childhood Perceptual capacities Visual development Auditory development Other senses The role of perceptual experience in development Learning Processes Learning Theories Habituation Gradual decline in the intensity, frequency, or duration of a response Happens over repeated or lengthy occurrences of the same stimulus Dishabituation: Recovery from habituation Renewed response to change in a stimulus Shows infants can detect change Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Learning is based on associations between experiences Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned response (UCR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR) same as unconditioned response Operant Conditioning Learning is based on the cause and effect relationship between one’s own behavior and reward or punishment Chart: left top positive reinforcement, top right positive punishment, bottom left negative reinforcement, bottom right negative punishment Social Learning Observational learning Child is active participant Deferred imitation Ability to imitate a model’s behavior hours, days, and even weeks after observation Implicit Learning Learning abstract or correlated relationships among complex events without conscious awareness Perceptual and statistical learning Statistical learning: picking up on patterns in speech Perceptual Capacities Visual Scanning of Objects/Scenes Fixations (eyes fixed) Saccades Rapid eye movements to inspect an object or view stimulus Slow at birth, more accurate around 3-4 months Visual Acuity Ability to make fine discriminations among elements in a visual array Detecting contours, transitions in light patterns that signal borders and edges Rapid developments in acuity and contrast sensitivity during the first 6 months Slower improvements for several years thereafter Color Perception Perception of some colors shortly after birth Rapid improvements in color vision in the next few months Kinetic Cues Perceptual information provided by the movement of objects in the environment of changes in the positioning of the eyes, head, or body Important source of information for depth perception Infants are sensitive to motion cues Optic Flow and Moving Room David Lee (1974) experiment moved room gently forward and backward with adults and babies. Babies were much more unsteady than adults. Visual information is more important than mechanical info to babies Biological motion Chapter 6 Cont. September 23. 2016 Vision Development Cont. Biological movement Movement that looks like its coming from another organism Stereopsis The ability to fuse the two distinct images from the eyes to perceive a single object Visual Cliff Experimental apparatus to test depth perception Surface on one side of glass covered table is made to appear far below the surface on the other side Auditory Development Hearing Stimulation begins before birth Recognize mother’s voice/native language Speech Phoneme: Small units of speech Categorical Perception: hear many sounds at 1 month old Ex: Ba/Da video shows that young babies are universal listeners until about 10 months


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