Psych 280, Week 3 Notes
Psych 280, Week 3 Notes Psych 280
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ilze Vizulis on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 280 at University of Michigan taught by Carla Grayson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Topics: Social Cognition Week 3 (9/20 - 9/22) Social Cognition − The way we process information in regards to social interactions − The way we think about people is very different from the way we think about other everyday objects Types of Social Cognition − Voluntary - effortful − Involuntary – effortless, automatic thinking Interpreting our World Through Preexisting Knowledge Top Down Processing − When we process preexisting knowledge and expectations (schemas) in order to make sense of the world. Schemas − We organize past experiences into schemas, which guide us in the future in what to pay attention to. − Allow us to process social situations without much effort (involuntary) − Accessability – the more easily we can pull up past schemas, the more likely they will be applied to the situation Types of Schemas − Innatentional blindness o failure to notice the obvious what is right in front of you, when you are focusing on something else − Change blindness o when you fail to notice change o example: a person asks a target for directions, the target does not realize that the person asking for directions switches with someone else when they are interupted by a door coming through − Highly developed schemas o when you are a trained expert, you have more developed schemas o example: on americas next top model, judges notice things that we would not − Priming o Schemas “prime” us with previous information, which influences how we think in the future (effects our construal of new info) o Having preconceptions going into situations have an effect on what things we remember from the situation Making schemas come true − Self-Fulfilling Prophecy o When we have an expectation (schema) of what someone is like, we end up treating them in response to the way we envision them. This may actually elicit a certain kind of behavior from the individual that would confirm our preconceptions. o This doesn’t always work… people’s true characteristics might shine through to disprove your expectaitions How we think about ourselves in social situations − Social insecurity o When someone has emotional insecutities, it can inhibit their behavior in social situations. In turn, others may respond strangely to them, which ends up confirming their sense of social insecurity. − Self Affirmation o We always trying to revisit, reaffirm, and reconnect with values we believe to be consistant and true about ourselves. o This increases self-esteem and is a protectivve mechanism in situations of critisism − Pluralistic Ignorance o When people behave in ways that conflict with their own beliefs, to protect themselves from standing out in social sitautions o Example: when no one raises their hand in class, yet students still have confusion Biases we have when seeking and evaluating social situations − Confirmation Bias o We typically don’t try to disprove our ideas, but rather seek information to confirm thme − Gamblers Falacy o The idea that if something is happening a lot right now, then it is unlikely to happen in the future − Bad News Bias o People pay a lot of attention to negative news, and orient themselves in a way believing that they are more at risk than they really are How Information is Presented − Order Effects o switching the order of which information is presented will influence your response because of what comes to mind first − Spin Framing o wording things differently, yet meaning the same thing, can push your attention to one construal over another − Temporal Framing o timing and distance of the matter influences how deep we think about something or the behaviors we take. o People are much better on putting off smaller rewards now for bigger payback later. − Positive/negative Framing o People prefer to hear positve wording o 90% affective > 10% inaffective Heuristics − Heuristics are mental shortcuts for making sense of the world. If it is an easy task with content, it will be easy to retrieve. − Availability o When we judge the frequency or probability of a situation based on how easily it comes to mind o Example: After reading several articles of people loosing their jobs in the city, you are more likely to begin to worry about your own job security − Fluency o If something is presented faster or more smoothly, then we tend to think that that task will reflect the way it was presented, that it will be a relatively fast, and easy task. o Example: a recipe is written in hard-to-read cursive, and normal font, people who read the cursive recipe tend to think that the recipe will be hard, and take a long time, as opposed to the people who read the recipe in normal font. − Representativeness o We tend to judge characteristics based our preexisting ideas of how they should be, based on the larger population they represent o Example: Sam loves going to EDM concerts and exploring new hobbies. Is he more likely to be a student or a teacher? − Base Rate Neglect o When we ignore statistical information and pay more attention to the general information, thinking that it is more relevant. This causes us to misjudge frequency o Example: We tend to think that a string of coin tosses (HTHTHT) is more likely than (HHHHHT), ignoring the fact that both are equally as likely becuause there is always a 50/50 chance. − Regression Effect o We tend to think thatit is more common to have values that are “average” (clustering around the mean) than values that are extremely high or low. o Example: The frequency of accidents on a road fell after a speed camera was installed, therefore, the camera improved road safety. We don’t take into conideration that it may not have been the camera that improved safety, but maybe just merely the trend. − Planning Falacy o We tend to underestimate the time it takes to complete a task