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Gen Chem Chapter 4 Reading Notes

by: Madelyne Crawford

Gen Chem Chapter 4 Reading Notes CHEM-111

Marketplace > Campbell University > Chemistry > CHEM-111 > Gen Chem Chapter 4 Reading Notes
Madelyne Crawford


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These notes were taken from the chapter 4 reading assignment that we will be quizzed on September 25, 2016!
General Chemistry
Dr. Kesling
Class Notes
General Chemistry
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madelyne Crawford on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM-111 at Campbell University taught by Dr. Kesling in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Campbell University.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Chapter 4: Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions By Madelyne Crawford  Chemical stoichiometry- the # relationships between the quantity of reactants and products in chemical reactions o Predict amount of products that will form during a reaction based on number of reactants that react o Determines the number of reactants needed to form a certain amount of product 4.1: Climate Change and the Combustion of Fossil Fuels  Balance between incoming and outgoing energy from sun gives earth’s average temp  More co2 in atmosphere- causes temp to rise o Fossil fuel combustion vs. volcanic eruption- what is causing global warming? 4.2: Reaction Stoichiometry- How Much Carbon Dioxide?  “The coefficients in a chemical equation specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the substances involved in the reaction.” 4.3: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield  limiting reactant- reactant that is completely consumed in a chemical reaction; limits the amount of a product in a chemical reaction o makes the least amount of product  reactant in excess- reactant that occurs in a quantity greater than is required to completely react with the limiting reactant  theoretical yield- max amount of product that can be made in a chemical reaction based on the amount of limiting reactant o do not limit amount of product  actual yield- amount of product actually produced by a chemical reaction o always equal to or less than the theoretical yield  percent yield- % of theoretical yield that was actually attained o %yield = (actual / theoretical) X 100% 4.4: Solution Concentration and Solution Stoichiometry  solution- homogeneous mixture of two substances (salt, water)  solvent- majority component of mixture (dissolves solutes to form solutions)  solute- minority component of mixture (dissolved by solvents)  aqueous solution- a solution in which water is the solvent  dilute solution- contains small amount of solute in comparison to the solvent  concentrated solution- contains large amount of solute compared to solvent  molarity (M)- amount of solute (mol) / volumes of solution (L)  stock solutions- concentrated forms of solutions that are stored by laboratory to save space 4.5: Types of Aqueous Solutions and Solubility  How do solids (like salt and sugar) dissolve in water??? o Attractive forces that hold the solid together compete with attractive forces between solvent molecules and particles that compose the solid when put into a liquid solvent  Electrolytes- substances that dissolve in water to form solutions that conduct electricity  Strong electrolytes- substances that completely dissociate into ions when they dissolve in water (ex: sodium chloride) o Result= strong electrolyte solutions  Nonelectrolytes- compounds that do not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water (ex: sugar)  Strong acid- completely ionizes in solution; also strong electrolytes (hydrochloric acid)  Weak acids- do not completely ionize in water (acetic acid, acid in vinegar)  Weak electrolytes- weakly conduct electricity  Soluble- a compound that dissolves in water  Insoluble- compound that does not dissolve in water 4.6: Precipitation Reactions  Precipitation reactions- a precipitate (solid) forms when two solutions are mixed o Only insoluble compounds form precipitates 4.7: Representing Aqueous Reactions- Molecular, Ionic, and Complete Ionic Equations  Molecular equation- shows the complete neutral formulas for each compound in the reaction as if they existed as molecules  Complete ionic equations- list all the ions present as either reactants or products in a chemical reaction  Spectator ions- do not participate in the reactions; appear unchanged  Net ionic equations- show only the species that actually changed during the reaction 4.8: Acid-Base and Gas-Evolution Reactions  Acid-base reaction- acid reacts with base and neutralize each other, producing water; also called neutralization reaction  Gas-evolution reaction- gas forms and results in bubbling o Many are acid-based reactions  Both reactions occur when anion from one reactant combines with the cation of the other  Antacids react with and neutralize stomach acid; use different bases to neutralize  Arrhenius definitions- define acids and bases; named after Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927)  Hydronium ions- formed by bare proteins associating with water molecules  Polyprotic acids- contain 1+ ionizable proton and release them in sequence  Diprotic acid- strong in first ionizable proton, but weak in its second  Salt- water and an ionic compound formed by acid-base reactions Acid-Base Titrations  Titration- substance in a solution of known concentration is reacted with another substance in a solution of an unknown concentration  Equivalence point- point in titration when # of moles of OH- added equals the # of moles of H+ initially in solution  Indicator- dye whose color depends on the acidity or basicity of the solution 4.9: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions  Oxidation-reduction reactions (or redox reactions)- electrons transfer from one reactant to the other o Rusting of iron, bleaching of hair  Oxidation- loss of electrons  Reduction- gain of electrons  Oxidation state- (or ox #) given to each atom based on electron assignments  Rules for assigning oxidation states: o 1. Ox state of atom in a free element= O o 2. ox state of monoatomic ion = its charge o 3. Sum of ox atoms in:  neutral molecule or formula unit is 0  ion is = to charge of ion o 4. In compounds, metals have positive ox states  oxidizing agent- substance that causes oxidation of another substance o oxygen!!! o In a redox reaction, ox agent is always reduced  Substance that causes reduction of another substance o Hydrogen!!! Quizlet!


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