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BIO 112-001, PHotosynthesis, DNA, GMOs, Growth

by: Allison Reckelhoff

BIO 112-001, PHotosynthesis, DNA, GMOs, Growth Bio 112-001

Marketplace > Indiana State University > Bio 112-001 > BIO 112 001 PHotosynthesis DNA GMOs Growth
Allison Reckelhoff

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Last two classes
Human Aspects of Biology
Karla Hansen-Speer
Class Notes
Biology: Ecology and Evolution
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Reckelhoff on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 112-001 at Indiana State University taught by Karla Hansen-Speer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
 Arithmetic and Exponential Growth o Arithmetic Growth: an unvarying number of new units is added to a population over time o Exponential Growth: the number of new units added to a population is proportional to the number of units that exists o o  Environmental Resistance o All the forces of the environment that act to limit population growth  Carrying Capacity (K) o Size of a population the environment can support o Resource supply= resource use  Human Population Growth o Thomas Malthus  Predicted problems from exponential growth  Starvation and suffering   IPAT Equation  Anna’s notes Green Revolution  In the past 50-60 years  Improved plant breeding and techniques  Use of modern fertilizers and pesticides  Agricultural productivity increased  Environmental problems  GMO’s? Photosynthesis and energy  The organic material produced in photosynthesis (a sugar) is the source of food for most of Earth’s living things.  Oxygen (that we need to breathe) is a byproduct of photosynthesis VOCAB TO KNOW  Stomata (like holes in the leaf where gases are taken in) – can open and close  Chloroplasts (an organelle, sight of photosynthesis)  Thylakoids (Inside the chloroplast, where the light reaction happens)  Stroma (the wall around the thylakoids) 2 stages to photosynthesis  Light Reactions o H20 o NADPH (electron carrier) o ATP (energy molecule)  Calvin cycle – synthesizes sugar o CO2 o Sugar 3 Key Actions in Light Reaction 1. Water is split 2. The electrons + sun’s energy go to the initial electron acceptor (NADPH) 3. Energy for ATP, which powers Calvin Cycle This is the means through which the sun’s energy is transferred into the living world. Photorespiration  Problem: Enzyme rubisco may bind with oxygen rather than with carbon dioxide C4 Photosynthesis  Uses an enzyme that binds with carbon dioxide but not with oxygen DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) think of it like a zipper Watson and Crick 1953 Rosalind Franklin – physicist who worked with x-rays and light diffraction  Made of nucleotides o One sugar (deoxyribose) o One phosphate group o And one of 4 bases: adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine (A, G, T, or C) Sugar and Phosphate form outside of later and the bases form the steps. A with T and G with C DNA Polymerases  Enzymes move along the double helix, bonding together new nucleotides in complementary DNA strand. Mutations – possibilities  No effect  Negative (cancer, diseases)  Positive (new beneficial trait)  Germ line mutations: heritable  Somatic cell mutations: not heritable Mutagens  Substances that can mutate DNA. o Cigarette smoke o UV light o X-rays Mutations and Evolutionary Adaptation o Mutations: only means through which completely new genetic information can be added to a species’ genome o The accidental reordering can (rarely) produce new proteins that are useful.  Making proteins: mRNA Ribosomes  DNA to RNA = Transcription  RNA to Protein = Translation Biotechnology  PCR (polymerase chain reaction) o A technique for quickly producing many copies of a segment of DNA o Applications  Crime scenes  Pre-natal testing  Tissue testing for organ transplants  Test for HIV, TB  Ancient DNA (e.g. Neanderthal)  Transgenic Organism o Its genome has stably incorporated one or more gene from another species  Glowfish    Getting Genes into Plasmids o Recombinant DNA: two or more segments of DNA that have been combined by humans into a sequence that does not exist in nature  Real-World Transgenic Biology o Human Insulin Production o  Transgenic Food Crops o Papaya o Bt Corn o Round-up Ready soybeans o Golden Rice  GMOs o Conventional/ Industrial  May or may not be GMO o Organic  Not GMO o EPA o Traditional: selective breeding/ control reproduction  Traits that already exist in species o GMO:  Manipulate DNA  Often combine DNA from different organisms: transgenic  Ligers are sterile; cannot have offspring o GMO Papaya  Resistant to ringspot virus  75% of Hawaiian papayas o BT corn  Bacillus thuringiensis  Soil bacteria produces crystals toxic to insects  Bt gene insereted into corn genome  Corn borer o Roundup Ready Soybeans  First glyphosate- resistant crop (1996)  Genes from bacteria, virus, and petunia o Golden Rice (Oryza sativa)  Beta carotene: vitamin A  Project started in 1990s  Field tests in Phillipines  Has yet to produce viable crops o GM advantages  Improve Yields  Provide disease and pest resistance  Increase nutrition  Speed up traditional breeding o GMO Controversies  Big Corporations (Monsanto)  Safety and unintended consequences  Human health  Environmental health  Ethics  Labeling GO TO STUDY GUIDE ON BLACKBOARD  How is DNA replicated? o Double Helix Splits o Each strand of old becomes a complementary base pair for the new o Makes two double helix with half old, half new


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