PSYC 4070, All notes for exam 1 (Weeks 1-4)
PSYC 4070, All notes for exam 1 (Weeks 1-4) PSYC 4070
Popular in Development over the Lifespan
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda H. on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4070 at Louisiana State University taught by Dr. Rosenthal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Development over the Lifespan in Psychology at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Notes 8/22 Chapter 1 Psychology is science because it uses the scientific method Science and psychology are selfcorrecting People are interested in child development When babies are born do they perceive things as adults do? o An infant’s world is one of “blooming, buzzing confusion” Habituation o Simplest form of learning that exists o Learning to ignore a constant stimulus When a baby cries, adults will do just about everything because you can’t ignore a baby’s cry o Babies can hear ALL frequencies Farsighted—can’t see stuff up close, but can see things far away Nearsighted—can’t see stuff far away, but can see stuff up close INFANTS ARE VERY NEARSIGHTED o Infants can focus best on objects that are 820 inches closest to their face Why has nature set this up to where infants can see that distance? What’s the most important end of the person? o Face Infants have as good a sense of taste as adults do How old is a person when they have their first basic knowledge about math and mathematical things? Theory—integrated principles that explain and predict why things occur Hypothesis—testable, possible relationship; SPECIFIC prediction what happens if theory is true Scientific method—a set of tools that a scientist uses to collect information IMPARTIALLY Psychologists don’t control what’s studied as much as other scientists o Psychologists study people 5 steps in scientific method: o 1. Devise a research question from previous studies or scientific observations Have to have a purpose in mind o 2. Develop a hypothesis—as testable prediction o 3. Test the hypothesis—design/conduct experiment unobtrusive observations in psychology—why? o 4. Draw conclusions—does data support hypothesis or not? Use statistics Seeing if the control group is big enough to say it is real o 5. Publicize your results Other scientists must EVALUATE and REPLICATE To describe development science focuses on typical patterns (normative data) and individual variations in those patterns (ideographic data) Research Design o Plan to conduct experiment—evaluate a hypothesis—what questions to be answered, how participants selected, how data is collected and interpreted and how valid conclusions can be drawn Hypothesis o Educated guess that states a CAUSAL relationship between 2 variables Independent or dependent variable Independent variable (IV) causes the dependent variable to change Dependent Variable (DV) depends on the independent variable to set its value o An increase in frustration (IV) CAUSES and increase in aggression (DV) o Change in IV causes the DV to change Controlled Experiment o Control things so that only the IV changes o Then we’re sure IV causes the DV (behavior) to change Developmental Hypothesis—states CAUSAL relationship between 2 variables where IV is usually Age Developmental Research Design o Plan for experiment to evaluate a developmental hypothesis how people change with age 1. Controlled cross sectional experiment Best way to gather information Short, quick, and simple 3 kids across 3 grade levels 2. Longitudinal Design Takes the longest time to complete o Minimum amount of time (4 years for “Moe”) nd th th Follows one single child from 2 , 4 , and 6 grade o An increase in age leads to an increase in intelligence Measures the affects of aging of a person Disadvantages: o More expensive, slow, can separate aging from history 3. Cross sequential study Combination of Controlled cross sectional experiment and longitudinal design Measures 2 children over 2 years instead of 4 The more groups, the better the results Quicker and less expensive Partial individual record 4. Correlations and Hypotheses Correlations o Positive: variables increase or decrease together o Negative: 1 variable increases, the other decreases Correlation coefficients range from 1 to +1 (no sign = plus sign) Correlation DOES NOT imply causality Controlled experiments distinguish correlation from causation o Control: the difference between experimental and control groups is the level of independent variable Chapter 2 1. Theory of Development Interrelated constructs, definitions, and propositions Systematically specifies relations among other variables Theories explain phenomena o Theories compete, good ones persist 2. Process Predictions come from the theory—hypotheses Hypotheses are tested in research A theory is altered to generate new hypotheses o Theory: orderly, integrates statements to predict a certain behavior o Theories help understand development and know what is important ***DANGER: CONFIRMATION BIAS*** Researchers get personally involved with and committed to theories they proposed/support. This makes objectivity difficult 3. Whys and Solutions Grand developmental theories are comprehensive Behaviorism: stimuli and behaviors are linked with reinforcement NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS NOT THE SAME AS PUNISHMENT 4. Positive Reinforcement Desired response—a positive stimulus is added to the environment BF Skinner—most famous behaviorist SUBJECTIVE not objective; directly observable things 5. Negative Reinforcement When the animal perform a desired behavior, a negative stimulus is removed from the environment Positive punishment: when an animal does a forbidden behavior, a negative stimulus is added to the environment Negative punishment: if the animal does something bad, take away something it likes Reinforcers can change over time Timeout is a behavioral technique to control children’s behavior Freud’s Developmental Theory Focused on studying consciousness that has 3 levels o Freud: personality is made up on unconscious mind How to access it Dreams, slips of the tongue, free association Psychoanalysis—understand present adult behavior through past behavior 9/12 notes ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY EriksonneoFreudian developmental theory with 2 major differences from Freud Theory was PSYCHOSOCIAL Freud was PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL Erikson’s psychosocial theory 1 “psychosocial” driving forces was not sex/aggression but becoming integrated into society & culture Erikson’s theory is one of the few that acts or acknowledges the fact that development continues throughout a person’s life Erikson did not believe that the early years were as important for forming a person’s personality An adult’s personality is determined by 5 years old Development does not stop in adolescence; continues throughout the lifespan 3 stages in adulthood Erikson’s first 5 stages correspond in time to Freud’s 5 stages (part of NeoFreudian stuff)—stages revolve around a psychosocial crisis 1. Trust vs. mistrust Infancy (Optimism vs. Pessimism stage) o An infant has to establish a bond with a trusted caregiver o During infancy, based upon social interactions the infant has with their parents, they’re going to merge from infancy with a sense of trust about the world or that the world stinks and no happiness o Developing a sense of trust o Optimism is better than pessimism o Stuff that happened in the early stages of life can come back and help you or hinder you later on in life o Most important stage is when you choose your identity for your path in life Have to keep finding an identity until it fits with you 2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (Toddlerhood) o Develop a healthy sense of self as distinct from others o Every child will begin to try to do things for themselves 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (early childhood) o Initiates activities in a purposeful way 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (Middle childhood) o Stage where a child starts to learn in skills and culture values 5. Identity vs. Identity Confusion (Adolescence) o Erikson believes that THIS STAGE is the most important stage in a person’s life o Develop a secure and coherent identity o Who you are and where you’re going in your life o If you do develop a sense of identity, it makes later stages be successful than if you are confused about your identity ***These 5 stages (above) mimic Freud’s sexual stages*** 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Early adulthood) o Establish a committed, longterm love relationship o The majority of the class is in this stage 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle adulthood) o You either either generate artifacts for future generations to be better or you don’t generate things to try to help future generations o Care for others and contribute to wellbeing of the young o Artifact—something from a different generation o Our children will be the best gift of contributing to the future 8. Ego integrity vs. Despair (Late adulthood) o Evaluate lifetime, accept it as it is o You’re old, and even though you might not have a terminal illness, you realize that you’re really old (80’s) and Erikson says that you should do a “life review” You look back on your life and decide if you’re life has been lived well You’ve loved and been loved by people If you do this review and realize that you’ve blown it, there is no time to fix it. o If you’re in a loveless marriage or you hate your job, Erikson says you should CHANGE IT NOW Psychosocial theory endured better than Freud’s o Developmentalists agree that important changes take place throughout life o Acknowledges that the developmental change takes place throughout life o Also agree with Erikson’s stressing the social and cultural basis of development (rather than biological), BUT o Not all of Erikson’s stages are viewed as VALID Mainly “identity” in adolescence and “Generativity” in midlife inspire substantial interest Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory Summarized: Schemas to understand the world, but they get better with age o Schemas: Mental maps or models of things or events in the world o Think about schemas as concepts. According to him, you carry these schemas in your head o When you were 4 years old, your concept of the opposite sex was different than a 24yearold Cognitive development is based on schemas getting better and better and reflecting reality more as you get older (ANYTHING, not just sex) Observational or (Social) Learning o Learn by observing a model o In the presence of certain stimuli in the environment, that response will intend to increase o Learn by observing someone else’s BEHAVIOR Example: Alfred Bandura was a famous social learning theorist Bobo doll experiment Toys all around the room for kids to play with Vygotsky—culture determines development o Culture teaches what and how to think o Children lean through a mentoring process, which is usually by a parent, teacher, or peer 1. Mentor mostly responsible at first 2. Gradually transfers responsibility to the child Why Study Development?? Once we understand development, we know how to help people of any age Different theories will offer different solutions for every problem o Ex: The Dog Whisperer (uses a modified behavioral theory to work his wonders with the dog. Guy is selftrained, and he gets the dog to have better behavior) Theories must be verified through research o If the data does not support that theory, you either modify the theory OR you need to throw out the theory and get a new one No ONE theory explains all aspects of human development o Different theories can be applied to different problems and development o Every theory presented is a “grander, classic theory” o An older model is that they come down to 3 basic issues Nature vs. Nurture Activity vs. Passivity Continuity vs. Discontinuity Nature vs. Nurture o Nature—genetic, biological o Nurture—environmental o Which is more important? Freud believed “Id” was part of our Genetics o Watson believed that stimuli from “Environment” control all development Environmental inputs were much more important than nature ActivityOrganismic theories o Change from within o Psychological structures inside, people actively choose, free will— Humanism “needs” drive development Mechanistic (passive) theories o Environmental inputs cause a way of development o Watson believed that stimuli from the environment control our development as humans o Old style radical behaviorists used to be called “Black Box behaviorists” o Stimuli goes into the box, and responses come out of the box o YOU are the box (the box is thoughts, feelings, emotions) o Development is determined by stimuli going in and the responses that come out (don’t have to know what you think or feel just what comes of it) stimu li respons es Continuity o Children and adults are the same, but kids can’t handle as many things at once o Quantitativecontinuous change o John Locke’s theory is GREAT example British “empiricist” Most famous for his Tabula Rasa (Blank Slate, Blank Tablet) Human beings are born innately bad If you wanted your child to be a good, Christian person you had to LITERALLY beat the devil (sin) out of them Didn’t believe that children were innately bad or good Believed that kids were born as a blank slate (Tabula Rasa), and he said that if you want to make sure your child is a great person, you have to make sure that what is written on their “blank slate” is good What is written on blank slate? What you learn from good experience and those certain experiences Continuity—gradually add more and more of the same types of skills in a smooth, continuous developmental process Discontinuity—children think, feel, and behave differently from older people (qualitative change) o If a theory talks about stages of development, it has to be DISCONTINUITY theory o Why??? Each major qualitative shift is a different stage o Can newborn infants think? They can solve problems Stage—qualitative change in thinking, feeling, and behaving at a particular time in life New better ways of thinking about Dichotomies: o Interactionist Theory Says GENETICS and ENVIRONMENT interact Development is Multidirectional and Multidiversional 4 Principles of Human Development: o 1. Development Joint product of Nature/Nurture Can favor heredity: evolutionary perspective Favor the environment: learning perspective But all agree they are impossible to separate Genotype influences environment you choose, and environment can turn genes on and off o 2. Physical, cognitive, socioemotional development are interrelated o 3. Developmental outcomes change over time and contexts Developmentalists try to explain how early influences relate to who or later Perinatal anoxia—often combined with other risk factors No single conclusion is true or all anoxic children o 4. Development is characterized by Continuity and Discontinuity Development often seem gradual and incremental—continuous More likely to see DISCONTINUITY over a YEAR rather than a MONTH Sleeper effect—effect can’t be detected early in development but emerges later Contrary to old thinking leadtoxicity (controlled for dose) is WORSE in elementaryschoolers than in preschoolers o Have to know their environment, what type of changes you’re looking for Complicating things more, mild trauma may not effect children raised in stimulating environments, but puts childrenofpoverty at risk If some environmental influences disappear with time (washout effects) while others appear with time (sleeper effects) We must observe children in multiple areas (physical, cognitive, social) at multiple ages, in multiple environments—before we know the effects of early experiences Notes 9/19 Chapter 3 Genetics Both heredity and environment influence development—can’t be too 1sided Behavior Genetics Identifies the extent genes influence behavior by comparing people who share different amounts of their genes The easiest way to compare people who share different amounts of genes is by looking at TWINS (identical and fraternal) o Dizygotic twins can share 4060% of genes o Monozygotic twins (identical) have the same genotypes (they share almost 100% of their genes) o Compare the agreement in behaviors in both sets of twins o Notion: if a behavior is based primarily on genetic factors, who would you see with the same behavior? Identical twins! Heritability Quotients (aka Heritability)—estimate extent to which genes cause differences among people in a specific population o Values range from 0 to 1.00 To understand behavior genetics— “hot” area in science need basic knowledge of hereditary Heritability—the proportion of variation in a trait within a group of individuals explained by genetic differences o Can apply heritability to one person, must be GROUP o Misconceptions: Doesn’t apply to one person Is NOT constant Is NOT an exact statistic Environmentality—group variation in a trait due to environment o Two different types: 1. Shared environmental influences Tend to make people similar In a family, environmental features that siblings share 2. Nonshared environmental influences Tend to make siblings different Environmental features different across siblings Ex: different friends, teachers, etc. Genetics of Behavior Genes influence physical AND behavioral traits—even the friends that we choose! 1. Genes confer dispositions, not destinies o Family member with Type II diabetes o You’re not necessarily going to get diabetes if you do the right thing! o Should be avoiding sugar o EXERCISE!! Every single day for an hour 2. How much genes/the environment influence a trait can change with age o Some genetic effects remain stable across a lifetime, but others can change in less than a year Finnish Twin Study Study of genes effect on alcohol use Comparing Concordance rates of drinking in identical vs. fraternal twins Concordance = BOTH drink (Discordance = do not drink) Identical twins showed more agreement In the study, 16 and 18.5 years of age… Heritability quotient showed genes effect alcohol use differently with age, accounting for ~33% of how likely one is to drink at age 16 and ~50% at age 18 ½ Legal age of alcohol consumption in Finland is 16 years old So, the environmental effects on likelihood of drinking decrease in 2 ½ years o Heritability measures BOTH genetic influence and how much the environment allows the genes to be expressed. o Heritability estimates measure PHENOTYPE, not genotype There are some studies for heritability of intelligence to find it higher in middle class families than it is in poor families o Middle class and poor families DO NOT have different kinds of genes o Middle class families greater economic resources make it more likely their child’s genetic potential for intelligence will be expressed in their phenotype Epigenetic theory—genetic activity constantly responds to environmental influences Development is influenced by genes but not purely determined by them Genetic Questions: o How many chemical letters are used in human DNA? 4 o Changes to what % of the human genome account for all of the differences found within the human race? 0.1% (we are all 99.99% identically genetic) o How much DNA do humans and chimps share? 95% o How much DNA do humans and bananas share? 50% o How much of a child’s DNA typically matches that of their biological mother? 50% o Is it possible for a child’s DNA not to match their biological mother at all in a maternity test? YES! Not all of our 23,000 genes are expressed in development Genotype—totality of an individual’s genes Phenotype—person’s actual characteristics (physical) Part of difference between genotype and phenotype is due to the person’s environment o Ex: If born with a genotype for exceptional musicality (middle to upper class families) Chromosomes and DNA In a cell nucleus, 23 pairs (46) “chromosomes” o Chromosomes—our biological inheritance o 22 pairs are AUTOSOMES (look and function alike) o 1 pair is the SEX chromosomes Females—XX Males – XY Chromosomes—strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) made from 4 bases: (A) adenine, (T) thymine, (G) guanine, (C) cytosine Only 3% of chromosomal DNA are GENES o What “intergenic” DNA (other 97%) is not well understood Nearly all body cells reproduce via “Mitosis” o Chromosomes duplicate, move to opposite ends of the cell & form two new cells—each with 46 chromosomes In general, one chromosome in the sex chromosomes is form the ovum and one from the sperm o Four of these “sex cells” form via “Meiosis” th o In ovary, 3 cells form tiny polar bodies—the 4 becomes an ovum. o In males, all 4 become sperm. o Ova and sperm contain only 23 chromosomes each 23 pairs of chromosomes ~23,000 genes In each autosome pair, the number and location (locus) of genes are the same Genes produce proteins and enzymes o Each base in a gene (A, T, G, C) codes for an amino acid o Proteins are the building blocks of our body o Enzymes catalyze reactions (facilitate chemical reactions) o Our body is built up of proteins following the genetic code o Most genes don’t work full time o Genes may be “on” in some cells but not others When a gene is “on” the cell will manufacture what it codes for o Intergenic “Regulator genes” determine if a gene is “on” One gene from each parent increases DIVERSITY Different genes at the same loci can send different signals Different genes—at the same locus are “ALLELES” o Ex: brown eyed allele from mom, blue eyed from dad o Both alleles code for melanin (a protein), but brown allele codes for more of its’ melanin than the blue o These 2 alleles represent a person’s “GENOTYPE” for eye color o Expressed eye color = “PHENOTYPE” = brown o Dominant allele is expressed, and recessive is suppressed o Recessive genes can “surface” as homozygous pairs in offspring Ex: if each parent has one dominant allele for brown hair (B) and one recessive for blond (b) hair M=Bb F=Bb o On average, 3 of 4 children will inherit one brown hair allele. Even if they also have a blond hair allele, they’ll have brown hair o On average, 1 of 4 children shows the recessive trait if both parents are carriers Homozygous gene pairs—alleles have identical instructions Heterozygous genes—alleles differ—Bb or bB Dominant allele determines Phenotype Heterozygous allele dominant vs. recessive o Dominant: tongue rolling o Recessive: lack of tongue rolling o Dominant: unattached earlobes o Recessive: attached earlobes o Dominant: curly hair o Recessive: straight hair In some diseases, the right protein is shaped incorrectly (ex: Cystic Fibrosis) Dominantrecessive inheritance is clear only when traits are determined by a single gene, but this is not true of most traits Is it possible for a child’s DNA not to match their biological mother at all in a maternity test? Yes Karen Keegan, Lydia Fairchild A. Expression 1. Not all of our 23,000 genes are expressed in development a. Genotype: totality of an individual’s genes b. Phenotype: person’s visible characteristics i. Part of difference between genotype and phenotype is due to person’s environment EX. If born with a genotype for exceptional musicality (middle to upper class family) 2. In cell nucleus there are 23 pairs (46 individual) of chromosomes, which give us our biological inheritance a. Chromosomes: strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) made from 4 bases: A, T, C, G b. 22 pairs of autosomes (look and function alike) i. In each autosome pair the number and location (locus) of genes are the same c. 23 pair: sex chromosomes; match in females (XX), not males (XY) i. X larger with more genetic loci ii. Father determines gender of offspring iii. Mother can indirectly influence gender by chemicals in uterus Acidic favors X carrying sperm Alkaline favors Y carrying sperm iv. XXX, XYY, XO possible (YO not possible) v. Testisdetermining factor (TDF) determines maleness TDF is one very small section of Y chromosome vi. Men vs women: more men score both genius and intellectually disabled generally score more of every psychological extreme d. Only 3% of DNA are genes; other 97% is intergenic DNA i. Direct activity of other genes ii. EX. Same exact Rgene produces 2 legs in humans, 4 legs in dos, and all legs on a caterpillar; regulator gene tells it what type pf legs to make iii. Far more similarities among genes of different species than previously thought e. DNA is important because it can reproduce itself (mitosis/meiosis) i. Mitosis Chromosomes duplicates, move to opposite ends of the cell (mother cell) and form 2 new cells (daughter cells), each with 23 pairs (mitosis) ii. Meiosis One chromosome in a pair is from ovum, one from sperm; 4 of these “sex cells” form In ovary, 3 cells form tiny polar bodies; 4 h becomes an ovum In males, all 4 become sperm (only 23 chromosomes each) 3. Genes produce proteins and enzymes a. Proteins are the building blocks of our body b. Enzymes facilitate chemical reaction c. Most genes do not work full time i. Genes may be “on” in some cells but not others ii. Gene turned “on” = cell produces what it codes d. Intergenic “regulator genes” determine if a gene is “on” 4. Diversity: one gene from each parent increases diversity a. Different genes at same loci can send different messages i. These genes are called alleles EX. Brown eyes allele and blue eyes allele Both alleles code for melanin (a protein), but brown allele codes for more of its’ melanin than the blue Alleles represent genotype, expressed trait is phenotype (brown eyes) ii. Dominant alleles are expressed, recessive alleles are suppressed Recessive genes can surface as homozygous pairs in offspring On average 3 of 4 children will inherit one brown hair allele. Even if they also have a blond hair allele, they’ll have brown hair. On average 1 child in 4 shows recessive trait if both parents are carriers b. Homozygous gene pairs: alleles have identical instructions (BB, bb) c. Heterozygous genes: alleles differ (Bb) i. Dominance/ Recession only matters in heterozygous ii. Dominant allele’s proteins mask the recessive allele’s proteins; Dominant allele will determine phenotype itself EX. Tongue rolling, unattached earlobes, curly hair iii. Dominantrecessive inheritance is clear only when traits are determined by a single gene, but this is not true of most traits Intelligence is polygenic d. Different alleles do not always show dominance/recession i. Codominance: a blended or additive outcome ii. EX. Blood type (type A blood has genotype AA, type AB has characteristics of both A and B) e. Most traits are polygenic: many genes/chromosomes affect them i. Any one gene pair will only modestly affect phenotype Genomic imprinting: imprinted allele is (deactivated) in the gamete—doesn’t effect phenotype Almost always, half of mother’s body cell genes are apparent in her offspring, but not always, sometimes mother is a “Chimera” Ovums produced by Chimeras are genetically distinct from most of their body cells—not just haploid ii. Polygenicity makes predicting traits across generations difficult iii. EX. Height, skin color, intelligence, personality, psychopathology, and behavior f. In some diseases, the right protein is shaped incorrectly i. EX. Cystic fibrosis II. Prenatal Development A. Today Embryologists have described the daytoday prenatal changes 1. 3 prenatal periods (period of zygote and embryo occur in first trimester) a. Period of the zygote (germinal period): first 2 weeks after conception begins when 1 sperm fertilizes egg by burrowing through egg’s cell membrane; first mitotic cell division at 30 hours; 1 week in fallopian tube; main developmental process is mitotic cell division i. Sperm among smallest body cells Sperm with y chromosome swim faster than those with X (better chance of fertilizing) 125 boys conceived for every 100 girls (but 105 boys born for every 100 girls) Females prenatal maturation faster (4 weeks at birth) ii. Egg is biggest, 2000x larger and 90000 heavier than sperm b. Period of the embryo: weeks 39; primarily, main processes are cell differentiation and specialization; heart, brain, and most other organs form; most likely to suffer from birth defects during period of embryo c. Period of the fetus: final 7 months; maturation and growth of structures started before this period 2. Prenatal environment is perhaps the most important environment a. Well protected yet exposed to environmental agents i.e. teratogens
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