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The Early Years of Microbiology

by: Study_Smarter_Now

The Early Years of Microbiology Bio 229

Marketplace > Santa Ana College > Biology > Bio 229 > The Early Years of Microbiology
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Covers the following topics from Microbiology with diseases by body systems 4th edition What does life really look like? How can microbes be classified?
General Microbiology
Ou, M
Class Notes
Microbiology, Bio, 229, Biology, Microbes, bacteira, fungi, archaea, eukaryotic, protozoa, prokaryotic, algae, Leeuwenhoek




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Study_Smarter_Now on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 229 at Santa Ana College taught by Ou, M in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Biology at Santa Ana College.

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Date Created: 09/25/16
Science: The Study of nature that proceeds by posing questions and observations THE EARLY YEARS OF MICROBIOLOGY: WHAT DOES LIFE REALLY LOOK LIKE? ✦ Leeuwenhoek was one of the first to discover a previously unknown microbial world. Microorganisms (microbes): Organisms that are too small to be seen without a microscope. 1.1 Describe the world-changing scientific contributions of Leeuwenhoek He designed and created his own microscopes to investigate the world up close. He examined specimens such as drops of blood, plaque, bee stingers, etc. Was the first to discover microorganisms. 1.2 Define Microbes in the words of Leeuwenhoek and as we know them today. Microbes are microscopic organisms and can consist of bacterial, single called plants, animals, or fungi. Leeuwenhoek described microorganisms as tiny round and oval shaped "animalcules which were no bigger than one hundredth of a grain of sand". Today we describe the vast ecosystem of microbes as more species than there are men in a kingdom" Today divided microorganisms into 6 categories: - Bacteria - archaea - fungi - Protozoa - Algae - small multicellular animals. HOW CAN MICROBES BE CLASSIFIED? ✦ Carolus Linnaeus developed a taxonomic system for naming plants and animals Taxonomic System: A system for naming plants and animals and grouping similar organisms together. ✦ Microorganisms can be grouped into 7 basic categories: • Bacteria • Archaea • Fungi • Protozoa • Algae • Small multicellular animals • Viruses Bacteria & Archaea: • Are prokaryotic meaning they lack nuclei There genes are not surrounded by a membrane. ¹ pro = before ¹ Karyon = kernel (refers to nucleus of a cell) • Bacterial cell walls are composed of a polysaccharide called pepidoglycan (some bacteria lack cell walls) • The cell wall of archaea lack peptidoglycan and instead are composed of other chemicals. • Bacteria and Archaea reproduce asexually. • Most archaea and bacteria are smaller than eukaryotic cells. • They live singly or in pairs, chains or clusters in almost every habitat containing sufficient moisture. • Archaea are often found in extreme environments, such as the highly saline, arsenic rich, acidic, oxygen-deflated places. • No archaea are known to cause disease. • Examples of how bacteria are beneficial to us: - Bacteria (and fungi) degrade dead plants and animals to release phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon back into the air, soil, and water to be used by new generations of organisms. - W/O microbial recyclers, the world would be buried under the corpses of uncountable dead organisms. - W/O beneficial bacteria, our bodies would be much more susceptible to diseases. Fungi: • Plural - fungus, meaning "mushroom" • Are eukaryotic - Each of their cells contains a nucleus composed of genetic material surrounded by a distinct membrane. ¹ Europe = true ¹ Karyon = Kernel • They obtain their food from other organisms • They differ from animals by having cell walls. • Microscopic fungi include some mold and yeast. - Molds are typically multicellular organisms that grow as long filaments that intertwine to Mae up the body of the mold. • They reproduce sexual and asexual spores, which a re cells that produce a new individual without fusing with another cell. - Yeasts are unicellular and typically oval to round. • They reproduce asexually by budding, a process in which a daughter cell grows off the mother cell. • Some produce sexual spores. Protozoa: • single-called eukaryotes that are similar to animals in their nutritional need and cellular structure. • Most are capable of locomotion by: - pseudopods Extensions of a cell that flow in the direction of travel ¹ Plural - pseudes = false ¹ podos = foot - cilia Numerous, short protrusions of a cell that beat rhythmically to propel the protozoan through its environment ¹ plural - cilium = eyelid - flagella Extensions of a cell but are fewer, longer, and more whiplike than cilia ¹ floral - flagellum = whip • Some Protozoa are no motile in their mature form. • Typically live freely in water, but some live inside animal hosts, where they can cause disease. • most reproduce asexually, though some are sexual as well. How do cilia and flagella differ? Cilia are short, numerous, and often cover the cell, whereas flagella are long and relatively few in number. Algae: • Plural - alga, meaning "seaweed" • are unicellular or multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes - make their own food from carbon dioxide and water using energy from sunlight. • Unicellular algae are common in freshwater ponds, streams, and lakes and in the oceans as well. • The major food of small aquatic and marine animals and provide most of the world's oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis. Other Organisms of Importance to Microbiologists • Microbiologists also study parasitic worms, which range in size from microscopic forms. • Laboratory technicians diagnose infections of parasitic worms by finding microscopic eggs and immature stages in blood, fecal, urine, and lymph specimens. • All viruses are acellular (not composed of cells) obligatory parasites composed of small amounts of genetic material (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat. ¹ Technically viruses are not "organisms" b/c they neigh the replicate themselves nor carry on the chemical reactions of living things. 1.3 List six groups of microorganisms: - Bacteria / archaea • Prokaryotic • lack a nucleus & membrane bound organelles • Reproduce asexually through binary fission - Fungi / mold / yeast • Eukaryotic cells • Absorb their food form other organisms • Molds grow as long filaments and can reproduce sexually using spores or asexually. • Yeast are single called round organisms and reproduce sexually or asexually through budding. - Protozoa • single animal cells and eukaryotic. • are classified by their means of locomotion (pseudopods, cilia, flagella) - Algae • Plant cells, contain a cell wall. • Photosynthetic • Cal be unicellular or multicellular - Small multicellular animals • Parasitic worms who have microscopic larval stages - Viruses • Small obligate intracellular parasites • Only made of a protein coat and genetic material • Require host cell's machinery to reproduce and are not considered alive. 1.4 Explain why Protozoa, algae, and nonmicroblal worms are studied in microbiology Because these organisms can be microscopic at certain stages of their life. 1.5 Differentiate prokaryotic from eukaryotic organisms Prokaryotic: • Lack membrane bound organelles • Lack nucleus • Are always single called and contain a nucleotide region where DNA is stored. Eukaryotic cells: • Have membrane bound organelles and a nucleus • are plant, animal, or fungi Leeuwenhoek reported the existence of Protozoa in 1674 and of bacteria in 1676. Why did Leeuwenhoek discover Protozoa before bacteria? Protozoa are generally larger than bacteria.


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