New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Hormones, tissues, skin & bone

by: Caroline Hurlbut

Hormones, tissues, skin & bone BMS 300

Caroline Hurlbut
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Endocrine system, hormones and receptors, skin and bone structure, types of tissues.
Principles of Human Physiology
John P Walrond
Class Notes
Biomedical Science, Physiology
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Human Physiology

Popular in Biomedical Sciences

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 300 at Colorado State University taught by John P Walrond in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Physiology in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.

Similar to BMS 300 at CSU


Reviews for Hormones, tissues, skin & bone


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/25/16
• endocrine system - secretion without ducts endocrine response - chemical signaling between/among cells • —sending/secreting cell: releases chemical/hormone —receiving/target cell: responds to signal sent by secreting cell • intercellular chemical communication —autocrine: sending and receiving cell are the same —paracrine: receiving cell is nearby sending cell —endocrine: signal enters blood and is carried all over the body hormones • —protein hormones: large hydrophilic molecules that bind to transmembrane proteins —modified amino acids A. tyrosine: catecholamines (hydrophilic neurotransmitters like dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine) modified to hydrophobic thyroid hormone B. tryptophan: modified to serotonin (5 HT) • protein hormones and their transmembrane protein receptors—>G protein coupled receptors —7-path G protein receptors —cAMP signaling mechanism A. alpha subunit of hormone binds to GTP and activates G protein B. G protein binds to adenylyl cyclase and activates it C. adenylyl cyclase converts ATP to cAMP D. cAMP activates phosphorylation of proteins steroid hormones - cholesterol derivative that is planar and hydrophobic • —cortisol —corticosteroid —aldosterone —calcitrol/vitamin D • modified fatty acids are generated from phospholipids and modified to prostaglandins • receptor/hormone binding —hormone/reception complex [H] + [R] ⁶ [HR] A. association—>form complex B. dissociation—>form hormone + receptor C. complex requires affinity and specificity —dissociation constant Kd: concentration of ligand at which 1/2 of the receptors are occupied —steroid hormones function as transcription factors A. steroid binding domain (specificity) B. nuclear access domain (access) C. DNA binding domain D. transactivation domain: recruits DNA polymerase • hypothalamic pituitary axis —posterior pituitary A. extension of hypothalamus B. neurons release oxytocin (muscle contraction) and vasopressin (kidney function) into blood —anterior pituitary A. originates as pharynx epithelial cells (Rathke’s pouch) B. troph cells contain receptors for releasing hormones—>travel through hypothalamic pituitary portal system to target gland C. negative feedback: hormones feed back to inhibit releasing hormone • skin structure (of a stratified squamous epithelium) —dermis: CTP with embedded proteins (fibrocytes, elastin, collagen) —stratum basale: living keratinocytes continuously dividing —stratum spinosum: spiny living cells —stratum granulosum: dying glycolipids that waterproof skin —stratum lucidum: dead clear cells —stratum corneum: horny keratin layer of dead cells • keratinocytes of SB and SS absorb UV light—>production of vitamin D • melanocytes secrete melanin—>taken up by keratinocytes to protect cells from UV light • bone structure —epiphysis: end part of a long bone —diaphysis: shaft connecting 2 epiphyses —trabecular/spongy bone and compact bone —medullary cavity: contains yellow marrow (fat) • compact bone arranged in osteons, which are concentric rings of osteocytes —collagen fibers for shear strength —hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate) for hardness and rigidity • bone processes —osteoclasts: break down old bone tissue —osteoblasts: deposit new bone tissue —bone growth A. chondrocytes form a growth plate called the epiphyseal plate B. chondrocytes continuously divide as a person grows C. as older chondrocytes degenerate, osteoblasts ossify remains to form new bone • tissue - set of similar cells that perform similar functions tissue types • —epithelial: continuous cell layers —connective: widely separated cells linked by proteins A. connective tissue proper (CTP): dermis, ligaments, tendons B. cartilage C. bone D. blood —muscle —nerve • epithelial cells —form surfaces and boundaries —1 layer: simple epithelium —multiple layers: stratified squamous epithelium • structure of epithelium —cells attached to a basal lamina composed of extracellular proteins —cells oriented with respect to basal lamina A. basilar surface: attached to basal lamina B. apical surface: attached to basilar surface —cells self-replicate A. mutations—>carcinomas (tumors derived from epithelial cells) integrins - actin binding transmembrane proteins that anchor epithelial cells to basal lamina • and provide a bridge to extracellular proteins • cadherins - transmembrane proteins that form adherent junctions and bind cells together • cell junctions —anchoring junctions A. desmosomes: link adjacent epithelial cells together B. hemidesmosomes: attach epithelial cells to extracellular proteins —tight junctions: form seal between adjacent cells and prevent movement of molecules through those gaps —communication/gap junctions: form passages to allow exchange of small molecules between cells A. protein channels composed of connexons (made of 6 connexins) B. 2 connexons form intercellular channel • exocrine glands as modified epithelia —process for salivary, sweat, mammary glands and exocrine cells of pancreas A. secretory epithelia pump ions into spaces of duct epithelia B. duct epithelia remove ions and leave water C. water is moved through aquaporins of surface epithelia —adenocarcinomas are tumors that come from secretory epithelia (ex. breast cancer) • connective tissue —CTP: generated by fibrocytes —cartilage: generated by chondrocytes —bone: generated by osteocytes —blood: generated by hematopoietic stem cells —all are embryologic mesenchymal cells characterized by widely separated cells embedded in the protein matrix secreted by the cells • connective tissue cell proteins —elastin —collagen —fibronectin —laminin • cartilage types —elastic: enriched with elastin —fibrocartilage: enriched with collagen —hyaline: enriched with glycosaminoglycan (glass-like)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.