Biology 124: CH 31: Exam 2: Part 1 of 4
Biology 124: CH 31: Exam 2: Part 1 of 4 30438 Intro Bio II - 124
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 30438 Intro Bio II - 124 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Professor Raut in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
CH 31 9/25/16 6:14 PM Penicillium- • Clear area with no growth of bacteria Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absoption Known for producing different diseases Nutrition and ecology • Fungi cannot make their own food- heterotrophs • Absorbs nutrients from outside its body • Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles o Decomposers- break down and absorb nutrients from non- living organic material o Parasites- absorb nutrients from the cells of living host o Mutualists – absorb nutrients from the host, but also benefit it Body structure • Yeast often inhabit moist environments or multicellular filaments • Hyphae- tiny tubular cell wall filaments which surround the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of the cell. • Adapted for rapid directional growth to new food scources • Fungal cell walls are made of chitin • Mycelium- mat of hyphae, expands that plants surface area • In most fungi, the hyphae are divided into cells by septa o Septae have pores on them so organelles can move in and out of them • Coenocytic fungi- hundreds or thousands of nuclei. Specialized hyphae • Adapted for trapping and killing prey • Haustoria Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles • If they land in a moist place where there is food, the germinate and produce new mycelia • Multicellular and eukaryotic • Sexual reproduction o The nuclei of fungal hyphae and the spores of most fungal species are haploid o Pheromones- sexual signaling molecules sent from hyphae of two mycelia o Plasmogamy- fusion of cytoplasm o Heterokaryon- different nuclei o Dikaryotic- two nuclei o Karyogamy- fusion of nuclei • Asexual reproduction o Incase of yeast, fungi produce asexually by budding o Varies widley among fungi o Molds- visible mycelia o Spore producing structures o Haploid The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, single celled, flagellated protist. • Nucleariids • Fungi arose from Microsporidia Fungal diversity • Chytridiomycota (chytrids) o Found in fresh water habitats o Can be decomposers, parasites, or mutualists o Cell walls made of chitin o Have zoospores- flagellated spores • Zygomycota (zygomycetes) o Fast growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts o Resistant zygosporangium as sexual stage o Black bread molds o Coenocytic hyphae o Asexual sporangia produce haploid spores o Rhizopus stolonifer- o Sporaingia of the rhizopous are asexual structures that produce haploid spores o Life cycle § Various mating types § Mycelia of different mating types form hyphal extentions (gametangia) § Plasmogamy (heterokaryotic) or dikaryotic cells § Zygosporangium forms containing haploid nuclei § Zygosporangium develops a rough thick walled coating § Karyogomy (when conditions are favorable) to form a diploid nuclei § Meiosis § Zygosporangium> sporangium>release of spores • Glomeromycota (glomeromycetes) o Form a monyphyletic group o Form arbruscular mychorrizae • Ascomycota (Acomycetes) o Live in marine fresh water o Produce sexual spores in sac like Asci o Ascocarps (fruiting bodies) o Sac fungi o Conidia- asexual spores born at the tips of specialized hyphae called condidophores o Lichens- symbotic relationship b/t a green alga and a fungus § Crustose § Foliose § fruticose o Life cycle of neurspora crassa (Ascomycota) § Dikaryotic stage!!!! ú EIGHT HAPLOID SPORES lined up on exam • Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes) o Include mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi, mychorrizae and plant parasites o Basidum- a diploid stage in the life cycle o Decomposers of wood o Best a decomposing the polymer lignin o Basidiocarps- fruiting bodies SI Heterotrophs- can not make their own food and depend on other substances to obtain nutrition In lichens, photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae
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