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The Modern Age of Microbiology

by: Study_Smarter_Now

The Modern Age of Microbiology Bio 229

Marketplace > Santa Ana College > Biology > Bio 229 > The Modern Age of Microbiology
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These notes cover topics from Microbiology with diseases by body system 4th ed Fields of microbiology WHAT ARE THE BASIC CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF LIFE? HOW DO GENES WORK? Microbial Genetics Molec...
General Microbiology
Ou, M
Class Notes
Microbiology, BIO229, Mibrobial, Genetics, Environment, disease, vCJD, Modern
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Study_Smarter_Now on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 229 at Santa Ana College taught by Ou, M in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Biology at Santa Ana College.

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Date Created: 09/25/16
THE MODERN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY ✦ Fields of microbiology: • Basic Research • Microbe Centered - Bacteriology: Bacteria and Archaea - Phycology: Algae - Mycology: Fungi - Protozoology: Protozoa - Parasitology: Parasitic Protozoa and parasitic animals - virology: Viruses • Process Centered - Microbial Metabolism: Biochemistry: Chemical reactions with cells - Microbial genetics Functions of DNA and RNA - Environmental Microbiology: Relationships between microbes and among microbes, other organisms, and their environment. • Applied Microbiology • Medical Microbiology: - Serology: Antibodies in blood serum, particularly as an indicator of infection - Immunology: Body's defenses against specific diseases - Epidemiology: Cause of diseases - Infection control: Hygiene in health care settings and control of nosocomial infections - Chemotherapy: Development and use of drugs to rate infectious diseases • Applied Environmental microbiology: - Bioremediation: Use of microbes to remove pollutants - Public health microbiology: Sewage treatment, water purification, and control of insects that spread diseases - Agricultural microbiology: The use of microbes to control insect pests • Industrial Microbiology (biotechnology): - Food and beverage technology: Reduction or elimination of harmful microbes in food and drink - Pharmaceutical microbiology: Manufacture of vaccines and antibiotics - Recombinant DNA technology: Alteration of microbial genes to synthesize useful products. WHAT ARE THE BASIC CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF LIFE? Biochemistry: The study of metabolism - the chemical reactions that occur in living organisms. HWO DO GENES WORK? Microbial Genetics Genetics: The scientific study of inheritance. ✦ Genes are contained in molecules of DNA ✦ A gene's activity is related to the function of the specific protein coded by that gene. Molecular Biology Molecular Biology: Combines aspects of biochemistry, cell biology, and genetics to explain cell function at the molecular level. ¹ Particularly concerned with genome sequencing. Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA Technology: The joining together of DNA molecule from two different species that are inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations that are value to science, medicine, agriculture, etc. Gene Therapy: Gene Therapy: A process that involves inserting a missing gene or repairing a defective one in human cells. 1.19 List 4 major questions that drive microbiological investigations today 1: How can we develop successful programs that either control or eradicate infectious disease? Campaign to have more people aware of how to prevent the spread of a disease. Scientists are discovering new medicine and vaccines to biologically prevent he spread of disease. Scientists are working to discover alternative to antibiotics that can eradicate antibiotic resistant pathogens. 2: Why can we identify microorganisms by their DNA, but are unable to culture them in the lab? This prevents further study. Without culture in the lab, we cannot test new drugs to fight the infection. Scientists want to find ways to cutler all discovered bacteria to study them further. 3: Can we use microorganisms in nanotechnology? Scientists are interested in using microbes in nanotechnology, such as in circuit boards. Scientists want to know if it is possible to harness the natural processes in bacteria to power microscopic electronics. 4: What are the positive effects of microbial communities? Understanding microbial communication can help humans prevent diseases, degrease pollutants and further understand aspects of our ecosystem. 5: How can we combats antibiotic resistance? Scientists are working to discover new alternatives to antibiotics to combat these infections. WHAT ROLES DO MICROORGANISMS PLAY IN THE ENVIRNOMENT? ✦ Microbial communities also play an essential role in the decay of dead organisms and the recycling of chemicals such as C, N, S. ✦ Another role of microbes in the environment is the causation of disease Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms in the environment ✦ Their characteristics and the diseases microbes cause as well as the steps we can take to limit their abundance and control their spread in the environment, such a s sewage treatment, water purification, disinfection, pasteurization, and sterilization. HOW DO WE DEFEND AGAINST DISEASE? ✦ The work of Jenner and Pasteur on vaccines showed that he body can protect itself from repeated diseases by the same organism. ✦ Existence in the blood of chemicals and cells that fight infection. Serology: The study of blood serum Immunology: The study of the body's defense against specific pathogens. 1.20 Identify the field of microbiology that studies the role of microorganisms in the environment. The field that studies the role of microorganisms in the environment is Called environmental microbiology. Microbes are responsible for breaking down organic material and recycling nutrients. Microorganisms also cause disease in the environment. Through public health research, scientists try to control the eh spread of environmental microbes through sewage treatment, water purification, disinfection, pasteurization, sterilization. Microbes are everywhere in our environment and impact our ecosystems and our health. 1.21 Name the fastest-growing scientific disciplines in microbiology today. The fastest-growing fields in microbiology today are: Biochemistry: The study of metabolism, or processing of energy in cells genetics: The study of genome, or the to a DNA in an organism molecular biology: The study of how cells work at a molecular level. recombinant DNA technology (biotechnology): genetic engineering. Genes from one species are cut and pasted into another species and expressed in that organism. gene therapy: Focuses on repairing mutated ends in humans through genetic engineering environmental microbiology: The study of microorganisms in the environment. EMERGING DISEASE CASE STUDY: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease • variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) "mad cow disease" because most humans with the condition acquired the pathogen from eating infected beef. • b/c vCJD affects the brain by slowly eroding nervous tissue and leaving the brain full of spongelike holes, the signs and symptoms of vCJD are neurological. - disease starts with insomnia, depression, and confusion, but eventually it led to uncontrollable emotional and verbal outbursts, inability to coordinate movements, coma, and death. - Typically the disease lasts about a year, and there is no treatment. • vCJD occurs by abnormal folding of normal protein forming prions, found in brain tissue of diseased animals. Prions lead to formation of tiny sponge-line holes on brain tissue showing its deterioration. Prions are not lie bacteria or viruses but ar abnormal proteins that turn to be infectious. 1. The vCJD pathogen is primarily transmitted when a person or animal consumes nervous tissue (brain). How could cattle become infected? The cattle is feed meat or bone that are infected with BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy ¹ leads to vCJD (prion contaminated meat) 2. Why is vCJD called variant? Because there are variable forms of CJD having different origins and are not all related. vCJD is however related to CJD as the infection that causes mad cow disease in cows is the same as the casual of vCJD in humans. 3. What effect does this pathogen have on cattle? The infection mostly affects various parts of the brain such a s cerebellum or the brain stem. There are characteristic changes due to the prions that cause the formation of tiny sponge like holes in brain tissue, indicating gradual deterioration of the brain... Spreading to the whole body and ultimately to death.


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