Psy 321Chapt. 6 & Lecture Notes (9/22/16)
Psy 321Chapt. 6 & Lecture Notes (9/22/16) Psy 321
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Notetaker on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Marilyn Mendolia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/25/16
Psy 321 Exam 2 Notes Emotion and Effect Chpt. 6 Emotion: a full-blown, conscious state that is clearly linked to some event o A reaction to something that is known by the person having the emotion Mood: a feeling state that is NOT clearly linked to some event. o Person, doesn’t know why they feel a certain way Affect: the automatic response that something is good (positive affect) or bad (negative affect) o Positive affect – all good emotions o Negative affect – all bad emotions o Affective reactions can occur without being fully conscious Conscious Emotion vs. Automatic Affect o The duplex mind has two dimensions that need to be distinguished: Conscious emotion – felt as a powerful, single feeling state Emotion Automatic effect – a quick response of liking or disliking towards something Affect Conscious is to unconscious as emotion is to affect Mary is upset that she didn’t get the job she wanted. What term most accurately describes what she is feeling? Emotion Emotional Arousal o Arousal: a physiological response that occurs within the body (faster heartbeat, heavier breathing) linked to most conscious emotions. o Theories of Emotion: Charles Darwin Theory of Emotion Emotions evolved and were adapted over time to help us survive Darwin proposed that expressions look a certain way because they help us deal with pressures in some way. It was refuted because these emotions were not universal across all cultures Paul Ekman: o Identified 6 basic emotions o Showed these photos to people all over the world and no matter the culture, they were able to interpret the facial expressions as indicating the same emotional state o Of all the cultures involved in the study, Papa New Guinea had were the lowest when it came to recognizing the facial expressions of other western civilizations This might have been due to display rules: when you restrict certain facial expressions depending the current circumstance your are in William James Theory of Emotion William James Theory linking the mental and physical aspects of emotion The feeling of emotion is a direct result of the bodily reaction Expressive Behavior Physiological Arousal Instrumental Action You hear footstepsheart rate increases Fear Problem with this theory was that the body’s response was similar for different emotions (some people cry when they are sad and happy) Lead to the facial feedback hypothesis: facial expressions can evoke or magnify emotions because the brain reacts to what the facial muscles are doing Test: Inhibiting and Facilitating Conditions of the Human Smile: A nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis o Participants hold a pen either between their teeth (face resembles smile) or between their lips (face resembles frown) while they rate cartoons. o Participants with pen between their teeth rated the cartoons as funnier than participants with the pen between their teeth o Conclusion: If you put on a happy face, you will enjoy external events more Lange’s Theory of Emotion: Emotional stimulus Physiological Arousal Experienced Emotion More focused on the physiological arousal Hohmann’s Spinal Patients: Patients with spinal injuries are asked about their emotional experience since the injury occurred The higher the injury along the spinal cord, the greater the decrease in emotional experiences Patients emotional reactivity to a stimulus was higher in men with lumbar injury than cervical injury Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer The idea that emotion has two components: a bodily state of arousal and a cognitive label that specifies the emotion o Physical arousal is similar in all emotions o Cognitive Label is different for each emotion Emotional stimulus Produces physiological arousal & Cognitive labelExperienced Emotion Sometimes arousal may arise for one reason but get another label, and thus produce a different reaction o Excitation transfer: arousal from the first event transfers to the second event Study 1: Schachter & Singer Participants told that researchers were studying the “effects of vitamins on visual skills” Participants injected with either adrenaline stimulant or saline placebo and exposed to confederates in joyous or angry emotional states Strongest emotional reactions found among people who had both received the stimulant and been told that the injection would have no side effects Study 2: Best-known demonstration of mislabeling arousal Participants cross either a scary bridge that arouses fear or a safe “control” bridge that arouses no fear and then are approached by an attractive woman who offers her phone number Participants on scary bridge mislabeled their fear-based arousal as attraction to the woman and were more likely to call her than the men on the safe bridge who were not aroused Fear can be converted into love Cannon’s Theory of Emotion: The brain is central to emotion An emotional stimulus activates the hypothalamus Once activated we experience 2 things: o A subjective experience of emotion (experienced emotion) o And Physiological Experience of emotion (arousal) Video: We Don’t Feel the Same Way Jeanie Tsai Explores cultural differences in the expression of emotion People from western cultures may be more emotionally expressive than people from eastern cultures Culture shapes how we think, feel, and behave but has minimal influence on the way we experience an emotional response (increased heart rate, sweating, etc.) Study: Cultural Attachment may influence emotional responding o Circles placed on subjects faces allow researchers to more clearly see their muscle movements during emotion o Sensors are attached to measure pulse, sweating and respiration levels o Subjects are then asked to re-live a range of emotions (happiness, sadness, disgust) o Measurements show that bodies respond to emotions in a similar way across cultures o Facial expressions/reactions were different European Americans smile more frequently than Hmong Americans when reliving happy emotions in their lives 6-3: Important Emotions 5 Important Emotions: Happiness, Anger, Guilt, Shame, & Disgust o Happiness One measure of happiness is affect balance: the frequency of positive emotions minus the frequency of negative emotions Life satisfaction: most complex form of happiness; an evaluation of how one’s life is generally and how it compares to some standard Broad time span The Hedonic Treadmill: people stay at the same level of happiness regardless of what happen to them Like being on the treadmill, you make take big steps forward in life but ultimately end up in the same place Does not work very well when life gets worse Happiness lies more in outlook and personality rather than in objective circumstances Strongest predictor of happiness is how happy the person had been 10 years before Happiness remains the same across time because it is rooted in one’s outlook and approach to life Subjective predictors of happiness (how you feel about something) are stronger than objective predictors (the something)
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