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Chem 127, Book Notes - Week 1

by: Aenea Mead

Chem 127, Book Notes - Week 1 CHEM 160

Aenea Mead
Cal Poly

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About this Document

These notes are primarily from the textbook reading assigned, seeing as we haven't really gotten into the material in class yet.
General Chemistry for Agriculture and Life Science I
Class Notes
atoms, precision/accuracy, Bonding, periodic-table, sig-figs, measurement, atomic-structure, symbols
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aenea Mead on Sunday September 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 160 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by unknown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Agriculture and Life Science I in Chemistry at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 09/25/16
Chapter 1: Section 4­5, Chapter 2: Section 3, 4­5    1.4) ​ Measurement    A measurement can tell you three things:  1) Size or magnitude (the number)  2) Something to compare it to (the unit)  3) Degree of certainty (# of sig figs)    ​ Unit ­ standards of comparison for measurements    ​ SI Unit ­ base units by which most scientific measurements of measured in and from which all  other units can be derived      Base Units of the SI System  Property Measured  Name of Unit  Symbol of Unit  Length*  meter  m  Mass*  milogram  kg  Time*  second  s  Temperature*  kelvin  K  Electric Current  ampere  A  Amount of Substance  mole  mol  Luminosity Intensity  candela  cd  *More commonly used base units    Sometimes if a measurement is too big or too small it doesn’t make sense to write it in terms of  the base unit so fractionals or multiples of the unit are used by adding a set prefix. A few  common prefixes are:  Fempto (f) = 10  −15  −12 Pico (p) = 10    Nano (n) = 10   −9 −6 Micro (μ) = 10    −3 Milli (m) = 10    Centi (cm) = 10    −2 Deci (d) = 10    −1 3 Kil0 (k) = 10    Mega (M) = 10    6 9 Giga (G) = 10    Terra (T) = 10    12   ​ **​Note: It is not necessary to memorize these, however it will make solving problems easier if  you have them on hand so that you do not waste time constantly looking them up.    Base units can be mixed to derive other units (similar to how primary colors can be mixed to get  secondary colors).  Ex. ​length​ can be used to derive ​volume​, ​mass​ and ​length​ can be used to derive ​density    ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓    ​ Volume ­ the amount of space an object occupies, SI unit is m    3 3 ​ Density ­ the ratio of mass to volume in a sample, SI unit is kg/m                                   1.5)  ​Sig Figs, Accuracy and Precision    Due to practical limitations no measurement done by man is exact. Significant figures (often  referred to as “sig figs”) are used to report a measurement as accurately as possible.    Sig Fig Rules:  1. All non zero digits are significant.  2. Any zeros sandwiched between two non zero digits are significant  3. Zeros to the right of the decimal are significant  4. Non sandwiched zeros to the left of the decimal are ​NOT​ significant (rule does not apply  when decimal point is present)    Examples:  1. 1389 ­­­ 4 sig figs  2. 56.0 ­­­ 3 sig figs  3. 50. ­­­ 2 sig figs  4. 50 ­­­ 1 sig figs  5. 80.809 ­­­ 5 sig figs  6. 5001 ­­­ 4 sig figs  7. 0.00393820 ­­­ 6 sig figs    Knowing how to determine sig figs is important for knowing how to write an answer for a  calculation. It would not be accurate to declare the number of molecules in your samples to be  8.83902849 x 10^22 just because your calculator spit it out. In reality you only really know a few  of those digits to be accurate, and the rest should be discarded.       Sig Figs in Calculations:  When using a measured number to make a calculation it is important to keep in mind that the  calculated number cannot be ​more​ exact than the numbers being calculated. It is important to  record a measured amount as accurately as possible with the least degree of uncertainty. Some  rules to go by:  1. When adding or subtracting the result should be rounded to the same number of decimal  places as the number with the ​least​ number of decimal places.  Ex. 154+23.44=177.44 → ​177  2. When multiplying or dividing the answer should be rounded to the number of digits as  the number being multiplied/divided with the ​least​ number of sig figs.  ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ 2.5) ​  The Periodic Table    The periodic table is organized into 18 columns, call groups, and 7 rows, called series or periods.  The elements in the periodic table are organized due to their various properties (such as valence  shell, metals/nonmetals/metalloids, etc) NOT simply by increasing number of protons.        Basic organization of the periodic table ​↓   More detailed version of the organization ​ ↓        2.6)  ​Bonding Basics    As mentioned in section 2.3, an atom can gain or lose electrons, thus making it an ion. The  periodic table can be used to predict whether an atom will gain or lose electrons. For instance  alkali and alkaline earth metals will lose one or two electrons to match the number of electrons  as the previous noble gas.  2+ Ex. Be w ​ ill lose two electrons to become Be   On the other side of the table the nonmetals will gain one to three electrons to match the number  of electrons at the next noble gas.  Ex. Cl gains one electron to become Cl   + ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​


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